Relevance: GS Paper III (Indian Economy)
Theme of the article
The conversation on raising farmer income needs to embrace non-farm diversification.
Why has this issue cropped up?
The Telangana government’s recent announcement of the Rythu Bandhu scheme has spotlighted the policy of utilising cash transfer to assist land-owning farmers with a non-agricultural income — instead of the traditional policy measures of price interventions, trade restrictions and farm loan waivers.
Rural India’s economic situation
- The average monthly income of rural households is Rs 8,000, with agricultural households deriving only 43% of their income from agriculture; most of it is from providing daily wage labour and government jobs.
- While agricultural households typically had a higher income than non-agricultural households, they had higher debt on average.
- The government has sought to double farmer income by raising minimum support prices, but such initiatives would apply directly only to 48% of rural India, with non-agricultural households being left behind. Perhaps we need to look at alternative sources of income.
How to increase farmers’ income?
- The conversation on raising farmer income needs to embrace non-farm diversification, an important pathway for empowering landless labourers and marginal farmers.Diversification can help overcome land constraint to income growth, while allowing farmers to cope with exogenous shocks through additional income.
- The livestock sector can offer significant opportunities for bolstering non-farm income. The current breeding policy (based on exotic blood and artificial insemination) needs to be revamped.
- A national breeding policy is also needed to upgrade the best performing indigenous breeds.
- Buffalo breeding ought to be given more attention, while poultry breeding should be focussed on conservation.
- State governments should be encouraged to participate in national breeding policy implementation, creating an environment for competition among alternative suppliers of artificial insemination.
- Consensus must be built among breeders to develop indigenous breeds.
- The feed supply (currently inadequate) needs to be mitigated through greater imports, with feed technology packages developed for extension dissemination.
- Geographical information system-based analysis must be utilised to map production systems.
- Private investment must also be encouraged.
- Animal health care should become a priority, with greater investment in preventive health care.
- The government needs to create better incentive structures for investment in livestock in the States that are lagging while harmonising rules, regulations and regulatory authorities across States.
- State governments should sponsor research and assessment of the market, along with highlighting investment potential.
- Our policies should help create sustainable, long-term, rural, non-farm employment options which can aid the rural poor in overcoming barriers to economic prosperity.
- India’s rural development policies should increasingly focus on developing markets, infrastructure and institutions that can help sectors such as livestock and construction growth
How to improve conditions of migrant workers?
- Improving the conditions of migrant workers in the construction sector requires a multi-pronged approach.
- First, we have to enable migrant workers to get deserved access to various government (Central and State) schemes, despite the lack of identity proof.
- Access to Anganwadi facilities should be provided regardless of their identity documents.
- While multiple laws exist for the welfare of construction workers, compliance is abysmal. The penalties for non-compliance have to be increased to a significant fraction of the construction cost, payable by the builder.
- Registration of workers with the Welfare Board should be made mandatory and be the responsibility of the contractor and the builder.
- The registration cards should be linked to their Jan-Dhan accounts, and transfer of payments on a periodic basis be made directly to their accounts.
- In order to improve the condition of women, strict anti-harassment laws should be implemented.
- Creche facilities at construction sites should be provided to also ensure that children are not neglected; they often play with gravel and dust, which can threaten their health.
- Utilisation of a construction cess has to be improved if we are to make any difference to the lives of our construction workers.
- Workers should also be provided with training and skilling in their areas of interest, as it could lead to higher earnings and credit-worthiness.
While India’s post-Independence rural policy has primarily been about driving people away from agriculture and towards cities, we must now incentivise job creation at their doorstep.