Essential Facts (Prelims): 15th January 2019

Essential Facts for Prelims – CSE 2019. Daily Compilation of Important Factual Information from Relevant News Sources for Civil Services Prelims Exam (UPSC)

Desalination plants

  • Desalination plants harm environment.
  • Desalination plants worldwide produce bigger-than-expected flows of highly salty waste water and toxic chemicals that are damaging the environment.
  • About 55% of the brine is produced in desalination plants processing seawater in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar.
  • The hyper-salty water is mostly pumped into the sea.
  • Brine is water comprising about 5% salt. By contrast, global sea water is about 3.5% salt
  • Brine often includes toxins such as chlorine and copper used in desalination.
  • Brine can cut levels of oxygen in seawater near desalination plants with profound impacts on shellfish, crabs and other creatures on the seabed.


  • Restrictions under prompt corrective action are imposed when a bank breaches certain risk thresholds with respect to
    • capital adequacy ratio,
    • net non-performing asset ratio,
    • return of assets and
    • leverage ratio.
  • Under the PCA framework, there are 11 public sector banks which have a 20% share in the loan market.
  • Government wants at least a few banks to come out of curbs so that lending can get a boost.


  • The Board for Financial Supervision (BFS) comes under Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • It has been entrusted by the central bank board to review the performance of the banks under PCA.
  • BFS is chaired by the RBI Governor and includes the four deputy governors and a few other board members.

Vienna convention

  • The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations was established in196.
  • It is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries.
  • It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country.
  • This forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity.
  • Its articles are considered a cornerstone of modern international relations.

Global Housing Technology Challenge

  • To solve housing crunch, govt kicks off int’l challenge New Delhi: The Centre on Monday kicked off a global challenge for builders and research organisations to come out with new technologies to reduce construction period of houses from years to months.
  • The primary aim is to select the most cost-effective technology to speed up construction of affordable housing to meet the target of building nearly 1.2 crore houses by 2022.

Global economy

  • India will likely be a larger economy than the US by 2030, while China will top the list.
  • Seven of the top 10 economies in the world by 2030 are likely to be from current emerging markets based on purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates and nominal GDP.
  • Most multilateral agencies see growth in India accelerating as China moderates..
  • The combined US, Japan and euro-area GDP share of world GDP (based on market exchange rates) fell to 46% in 2018 from 51% in 2010, and is expected to slide further to 40% by 2030.

Assam Accord

  • It was formulated in 1985.
  • It fixed the cut-off date for migrants from Bangladesh to March 24,1971.

Retail inflation

Retail inflation is  measured by the consumer price index.