Daily PIB

Daily PIB/ 30 March

General Studies- III

Topic– Major crops – cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems – storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers. 

Adoption of Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF)


Government is implementing Bhartiya Prakritik Krishi Padhati (BPKP) introduced during 2020-21 as a sub scheme of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) for the promotion of traditional indigenous practices including Natural Farming to bring down the input costs. 

The scheme mainly emphasises on:

  • Exclusion of all synthetic chemical inputs, and 
  • Promotes on-farm biomass recycling with major stress on biomass mulching,
  • Use of cow dung-urine formulations and other plant-based preparations. 

Training through capacity building is integral part of the scheme.

Bhartiya Prakritik Krishi Padhati:

Bhartiya Prakritik Krishi Padhati (BPKP), is introduced as a sub scheme of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) since 2020-21.

  • It aimed for the promotion of traditional indigenous practices including natural farming. 
  • The scheme mainly emphasizes on exclusion of all synthetic chemical inputs.
  • It promotes on-farm biomass recycling with major stress on biomass mulching; use of cow dung-urine formulations; plant-based preparations and time to time working of soil for aeration. 
  • Under BPKP, financial assistance of Rs 12200/ha for 3 years is provided for cluster formation, capacity building and continuous handholding by trained personnel, certification and residue analysis.

What is the ‘Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna’?

“Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna (PKVY)” a sub-component of Soil Health Management (SHM) scheme under National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture(NMSA).

  • It aims at development of sustainable models of organic farming through a mix of traditional wisdom and modern science.
  • Its objective is to ensure long term soil fertility buildup, resource conservation and helps in climate change adapatation and mitigation.

Zero Budget Natural Farming in India:

Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) is a set of farming methods.It is a method of chemical-free agriculture drawing from traditional Indian practices.

  • It is a unique model that relies on Agro-ecology.
  • It is also a grassroots peasant movement, which has spread to various states in India. 
  • It has attained wide success in southern India, especially the southern Indian state of Karnataka where it first evolved.  
  • It was originally promoted by agriculturist Subhash Palekar, who developed it in the mid-1990s as an alternative to the Green Revolution’s methods that are driven by chemical fertilizers and pesticides and intensive irrigation.
  • It aims – to bring down the cost of production to nearly zero and return to a pre-green revolution style of farming.

Four key Pillars of Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF)

The “four Pillars” of ZBNF are ‘Jiwamrita’, ‘Bijamrita’, ‘Mulching’ and ‘Waaphasa’.


  • It is a fermented mixture of cow dung and urine (of desi breeds), jaggery, pulses flour, water and soil from the farm bund. 
  • This isn’t a fertiliser, but just a source of some 500 crore micro-organisms that can convert all the necessary “non-available” nutrients into “available” form.


  • It is a mix of desi cow dung and urine, water, bund soil and lime that is used as a seed treatment solution prior to sowing.


  • Covering the plants with a layer of dried straw or fallen leaves, is meant to conserve soil moisture and keep the temperature around the roots at 25-32 degrees Celsius, which allows the microorganisms to do their job.


  • Providing water to maintain the required moisture-air balance, also achieves the same objective.

Benefits of ZBNF:

  1. The ZBNF method promotes soil aeration, minimal watering, intercropping, bunds and topsoil mulching and discourages intensive irrigation and deep ploughing.
  2. In ZBNF there is the need to spend money or take loans for external inputs, the cost of production could be reduced and farming made into a “zero budget” exercise.
  3. This would break the debt cycle for many small farmers and help to envisage the doubling of farmer’s income by 2022.
  4. At a time when chemical-intensive farming is resulting in soil and environmental degradation, a zero-cost environmentally-friendly farming method is definitely a timely initiative.
  5. Profits in most areas under ZBNF were from higher yield and lower inputs.
  6. Model ZBNF farms were able to withstand drought and flooding.
  7. Planting multiple crops and border crops on same field provides varied income and nutrient sources.
  8. It suits all crops in all agro-climatic zones.

Needs to be done:

  • Sikkim (India’s first organic state), has seen some decline in yields following conversion to organic farming.
  • While ZBNF has definitely helped preserve soil fertility, its role in boosting productivity and farmers’ income isn’t conclusive yet.
  • ZBNF advocates the need of an Indian breed cow, whose numbers are declining at a fast pace.
  • Low expenditure by the government is matter of concern.
  • Whereas the Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana, which was meant to promote organic farming and soil health has been allocated Rs 325 crore only.
  • If ZBNF is practiced in isolation, the crop grown would be vulnerable to attacks by insects and pests which may move there from fields where chemical pesticides are being sprayed.
  • The government should step in and reduce dependence on middle men.

General Studies- III

Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Mission ‘Lakshya Zero Dumpsite’


‘Lakshya Zero Dumpsite’: Government of India approves ₹178.6 crore Legacy Waste Remediation Proposal of Telangana.

  • Telangana has been dealing with the challenges of dumpsites, requiring immediate remediation of legacy waste from the cities. 
  • To deal with the municipal solid waste generated in Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) across Telangana, 123 ULBs have proposed remediation of Legacy waste dumpsites.
  • Moreover, to convert the legacy waste for further usage, a program of bio-mining is being taken up in 123 municipalities in the state. 


In a landmark initiative, Prime Minister Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 on October 1, 2021. 

  • Under the mission, the government aims to revamp the urban ecosystem for the betterment of the citizens. 
  • With sheer focus and commitment to serve, the world’s biggest cleanliness drive is marching towards sustainable urbanization.

About the mission:

Under the vision of Swachh Bharat Mission, India has pledged to achieve ‘Lakshya Zero Dumpsites’ within the mission period. 

  • The remediation of legacy waste will facilitate the recovery of valuable land across the country.
  • This will also take the nation closer to its dream of ‘Garbage-free cities’, which will further provide a healthier future to the residents.
  • Approx 16 crores metric tonnes (MT) of legacy waste has covered around 15000 acres of prime land across the nation. 
  • Thus, the mission ‘Lakshya Zero Dumpsites’ is the need of the hour, which furthers the vision of rejuvenating the urban landscapes.

What are the legacy waste dumpsites?

The fine fraction in the legacy waste dumpsites is nothing but the decomposed and mineralised organic waste mixed with silt, sand and fine fragments of construction and demolition (C&D) waste.

Significance of the project: 

  • Legacy dumpsites pose major threats to the environment and contribute to air pollution and water pollution. 
  • Clearing these mountains of years-old waste is critical to not just transforming the urban landscape of the country, but also addressing the issue of public health and environmental concerns.

 A sustainable business model to manage legacy waste:

Needs to be done:

  • Management of legacy waste should be combined with the integrated waste management facility having adequate capacities for collecting, transporting and disposing of the municipal solid waste produced on a day-to-day basis as well as legacy waste trapped in the dumpsites.
  • The revenue-generating fractions can help articulate the circular economy in the sustainable business model for India in the coming years.

General Studies- III

TopicScience and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.


A Statement of Intent between Indian Oil Corp. Ltd. and a subsidiary of Greenstat Norway for setting up of Centre of Excellence on Hydrogen was signed.

This association aims to develop a Center of Excellence on Hydrogen (CoE-H) including CCUS and Fuel Cells for clean energy in cooperation with Indo-Norwegian Hydrogen Cluster companies/organizations.

What is Hydrogen fuel?

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. 

  • Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. 
  • These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. 
  • It can be used in cars, in houses, for portable power, and in many more applications.

What Is a Hydrogen Fuel Cell?

  • A Hydrogen Fuel Cell is an electrochemical power generator that combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and heat as by-products.
  • Simply put, hydrogen fuel cells form energy that can be used to power anything from commercial vehicles to drones.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Technology Explained:

How does a fuel cell work?  

A fuel cell is composed of three main components: an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte membrane. 

  • It works by passing hydrogen through the anode side and oxygen through the cathode side. 
  • At the anode site, the hydrogen molecules are split into electrons and protons. 
  • The protons pass through the electrolyte membrane, while the electrons are forced through a circuit, generating an electric current and excess heat. 
  • At the cathode, the protons, electrons, and oxygen combine to produce water molecules.
  • Fuel cells are very clean, with their only by-products being electricity, a little heat, and water.  Additionally, as HFCs do not have any moving parts, they operate very quietly.

Advantages & Benefits 

Zero Emission Power:

  • HFCs produce no harmful emissions, eliminating the costs associated with handling and storing toxic materials like battery acid or diesel fuel. 
  • In fact, when fueled with pure hydrogen, the only by-products are heat and water, making this a zero-emission sustainable power source. 

Robust Reliability:

  • HFCs have proven themselves against tough conditions.
  • It works smoothly in cold environments as low as -40 degrees F/C, weather environments like hurricanes, deserts and winter storms, and even the hard-working business environments of material handling warehouses.

Improved Efficiency:

  • HFCs are generally between 40–60% energy efficient. 
  • This is higher than some other systems for energy generation.

Lower Operational Costs:

  • Compared to batteries and internal combustion generators, fuel cells save money.  
  • They eliminate the need to change, charge and manage batteries – saving both labor/time and space normally allocated to a battery room.
  • The units run longer than lead-acid batteries and can be fueled in as little as two minutes, substantially reducing vehicle and personnel downtime.

Chrome facts for Prelims

REWARD Project:

The Government of India, the State Governments of Karnataka and Odisha and the World Bank have signed a $115 million Programme (Rejuvenating Watersheds for Agricultural Resilience through Innovative Development Programme). 

  • REWARD stands for Rejuvenating Watersheds for Agricultural Resilience through Innovative Development. 
  • The project aims to help national and state institutions adopt improved watershed management practices to help increase farmers’ resilience to climate change, promote higher productivity and better incomes. 
  • The Government of India has committed to restoring 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030 and doubling farmers’ income by 2023. 
  • Effective watershed management can help enhance livelihoods in rainfed areas, while building a more resilient food system.

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