PIB – February 13 , 2020


General Studies-III

Topic- Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Context

An Artificial Intelligence (AI) powered learning ecosystem that will assist the banking, financial services and insurance (BFSI) sector: Commerce and Industry & Railways Minister

What is Artificial intelligence (AI)?

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.
  • Specific applications of AI include expert systems, natural language processing (NLP), speech recognition and machine vision.
  • The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

AI programming focuses on three cognitive skills: learning, reasoning and self-correction.

Learning processes

  • This aspect of AI programming focuses on acquiring data and creating rules for how to turn the data into actionable information.
  • The rules, which are called algorithms, provide computing devices with step-by-step instructions for how to complete a specific task.

Reasoning processes

  • This aspect of AI programming focuses on choosing the right algorithm to reach a desired outcome.

Self-correction processes

  • This aspect of AI programming is designed to continually fine-tune algorithms and ensure they provide the most accurate results possible.

Advantages of artificial intelligence

  • Artificial neural networks and deep learning artificial intelligence technologies are quickly evolving.
  • It’s primarily because AI processes large amounts of data much faster and makes predictions more accurately than humanly possible.
  • While the huge volume of data that’s being created on a daily basis, AI applications that use machine learning can take that data and quickly turn it into actionable information.

Disadvantages of AI

  • The primary disadvantage of using AI is that it is expensive to process the large amounts of data that AI programming requires.
  • Stephen Hawkins has once saidThe development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded”.
  • AI technologies falling into terrorist hands may unleash modern terror network including machine and therefore vulnerability of humans may magnify.
  • It may lead to moral degradation in society due to decreased human to human interactions.
  • The decrease in demand for human labour due to machines and intelligent robots taking over the jobs in the manufacturing and the services sectors.

Artificial intelligence in India

  • As per Global AI Report 2019, India stood at the ninth position in terms of the number of the AI specialists working in the field.
  • The US, China and the UK topped the list.
  • IIT Hyderabad has launched a full fledged Bachelor of Technology (B Tech) program in AI becoming the first Indian educational institution to do so.
  • It is also most likely the third educational institute in the world after Carnegie Mellon University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a full fledged B Tech program on AI.
  • Defence forces of India are now venturing into the products and technologies which will aid defence measures using the AI and technologies.
  • In India, corporates have started collaborating with academia on AI.
  • It is estimated that AI will add 957 billion dollars to India’s GDP by the year 2035 boosting India’s annual growth by 1.3% points.

Benefits of AI in India

  • NITI Aayog estimates that adopting AI means a 15% boost for the gross value added (GVA) for the economy by 2035.
  • India still has a conventional policing. AI based products open a new window of opportunity to do predictive policing in India.
  • With the help of AI, one can predict the pattern of crime, analyze lot of CCTV footage which are available across the country to identify suspects.
  • AI can increase access and affordability of quality healthcare.
  • In agriculture, it can contribute towards enhancing farmers’ income, increase farm productivity and reduce wastage.
  • It can also improve access and quality of education.
  • Develop smarter and safer modes of transportation to address traffic and congestion problems.
  • Increase efficiency and enhance governance across the government.
  • Make in India’ programme can be strengthened and help India in becoming a major manufacturing hub with AI-assisted technology.

General Studies-III

Topic- Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system

Context

DRDO’s Air Independent Propulsion system gets boost with operation of land-based prototype.

About Air Independent Propulsion system

  • Air-independent propulsion (AIP) is a technology which allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without the need to access atmospheric oxygen (by surfacing or using a snorkel).
  • Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system can augment or replace the diesel-electric propulsion system of non-nuclear vessels.
  • AIP systems generate electricity, powering a submarine’s to operate and also generate oxygen, lighting and amenities for crew.
  • It enables conventional diesel-electric submarines to remain submerged for two to three weeks at a time.
  • Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) has a force multiplier effect on lethality of a diesel electric submarine.
  • It enhances the submerged endurance of the boat, several folds.

Advantages of AIP System

  • AIP does not normally provide the endurance or power to replace the atmospheric dependent propulsion.
  • It allows it to remain submerged longer than a more conventionally propelled submarine.
  • A typical conventional power plant will provide 3 megawatts maximum, and an AIP source around 10% of that.
  • A nuclear submarine’s propulsion plant is usually much greater than 20 megawatts.
  • Another advantage is that the Non-nuclear submarines running on battery power or AIP can be virtually silent

Significance of AIP System

  • AIP significantly improves stealth because it enables a submarine to generate electricity for services and battery charging and propulsion while completely submerged.
  • A submarine’s diesel engines can only be started once the snorkel has cleared the surface to take in oxygen in the fresh ai
  • Snorkelling depth is about the same as periscope depth.
  • Without AIP, diesel-electric submarines have to come up to snorkelling depths just below the surface or surface at shorter intervals so that the diesel engines can recharge their batteries. This significantly increases the risk of detection.
  • It can be retrofitted into existing submarine hulls by inserting an additional hull section.

General Studies-III

Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

State Energy Efficiency Index 2019

Context

Union Power Minister releases State Energy Efficiency Index 2019

About

  • ‘State Energy Efficiency Index 2019’, tracks the progress of Energy Efficiency (EE) initiatives in 36 states and union territories based on 97 significant indicators.
  • The index is developed by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in association with Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE).
  • For a rational comparison, the States or Union Territories are grouped into four groups.
  • The Index categorises states as ‘Front Runner’, ‘Achiever’, ‘Contender’ and ‘Aspirant’ based on their efforts and achievements towards energy efficiency implementation.

 Why this index is developed?

  • ‘State Energy Efficiency Index 2019’ will help states contribute towards national goals on energy security and climate action.
  • To help in driving EE policies and program implementation at the state and local level,
  • To track progress in managing the states’ and India’s energy footprint,
  • To institutionalise the data capture and monitoring of EE activities by states.

Performance of the states

For rational comparison, States/UTs are grouped into four groups based on aggregated Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) required to meet the state’s actual energy demand (electricity, coal, oil, gas, etc.) across sectors.

Under four categories based on TPES:

  • Haryana, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashta, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Puducherry and Chandigarh have been evaluated as progressive states/UTs.
  • Manipur, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir were the least performers.

Significance

  • India plans to reduce its carbon footprint by 33-35% from its 2005 levels by 2030.
  • States EE Index 2019 shows that majority of the initiatives taken by states are related to Policies and Regulations.
  • Such an index assumes significance in a country that is now the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases after the US and China, and which is among the countries most vulnerable to climate change.

For Prelims

Bimstec disaster management exercise -2020

Highlights

  • Field Training Exercise of 2nd BIMSTEC Disaster Management Exercise on flood rescue held at the Ramachandi Beach, Puri (Odisha).
  • Considering the huge impact of the flood disaster, BIMSTEC member countries offered assistance to the Govt. of India for the flood rescue &relief operation.
  • of India accepted the assistance offered by BIMSTEC member nations and thus participated in this joint field exercise.