GS- 3rd Paper
Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
National Company Law Appellate Tribunal
In pursuance of judgement of Hon’ble Supreme Court, the Government has decided to set up a bench of National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) at Chennai.
- Benches of National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) are set up in various States depending on the case load and other relevant factors.
- Apart from decision to set up NCLAT bench at Chennai, five new benches of NCLT have been set up during 2018-2019 at Jaipur, Cuttack, Kochi, Indore and Amaravati.
- The Government has recently appointed 28 more members in NCLT and 4 more members in NCLAT.
- National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) was constituted under the Companies Act, 2013.
- It came in effect from 1st June, 2016.
- NCLAT constituted to hear appeals against the orders of the Tribunal (NCLT).
- NCLAT is also the Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against the orders passed by NCLT(s).
- NCLAT is also the Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against the orders passed by Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC)..
- NCLAT is also the Appellate Tribunal to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction issued or decision made or order passed by the Competition Commission of India (CCI).
Composition of NCLAT
- The chairperson- shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of a High Court.
- A Judicial Member- shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court or is a Judicial Member of the Tribunal for five years.
- A Technical Member– shall be a person of proven ability, integrity and standing having special knowledge and experience, of not less than twenty-five years, in law, industrial management or administration, or such other disciplines related to management, conduct of affairs, revival, rehabilitation and winding up of companies.
- The President of the NCLT and the chairperson and Judicial Members of the NCLAT will be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)
- The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) is a quasi-judicial body in India adjudicating issues concerning companies in the country.
- It was formed on June 1, 2016 as per the provisions of the Companies Act 2013.
- It was formed based on the recommendations of the Justice Eradi Committee that was related to insolvency and winding up of companies in India.
- As of now, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has established 11 Benches of the tribunal with the Principal Bench at New Delhi.
Functions of NCLT
- All proceedings under the Companies Act such as arbitration, arrangements, compromise, reconstruction and winding up of the company will be disposed off by the NCLT.
- It is the Adjudicating Authority for insolvency proceedings under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.
- In the above mentioned subjects, no civil court will have jurisdiction.
- The NCLT has the authority to dispose of cases pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR).
- It also addresses the cases relating to the oppression and mismanagement of a company.
- Decisions taken by the NCLT can be appealed to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT).
- The decisions of the NCLAT can be appealed to the Supreme Court on a point of law.
Tiger corridors in Country
The National Tiger Conservation Authority in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India has published a document titled “Connecting Tiger Populations for Long-term Conservation”.
- 32 major corridors have been mapped out across the country in the “Connecting Tiger Populations for Long-term Conservation”.
- Management interventions for tiger corridors are operationalised through a Tiger Conservation Plan, mandated under section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Strategy for Tiger Corridors
A 3 pronged strategy to manage human-tiger negative interactions has been advocated as follows-
Material and logistical support
- Funding support through the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger is provided to tiger reserves.
- It is for acquiring capacity in terms of infrastructure and material, to deal with tigers dispersing out of source areas.
Restricting habitat interventions
- Based on the carrying capacity of tigers in a tiger reserve, habitat interventions are restricted through an overarching Tiger Conservation Plan (TCP).
- In case tiger numbers are at carrying capacity levels, it is advised that habitat interventions should be limited.
- So that there is no excessive spillover of wildlife including tigers thereby minimizing man-animal conflict.
- In buffer areas around tiger reserves, habitat interventions are restricted such that they are sub-optimal vis-à-vis the core/critical tiger habitat areas, judicious enough to facilitate dispersal to other rich habitat areas only.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs)
The National Tiger Conservation Authority has issued following three SOPs to deal with man-animal conflict which are available in public domain-
- To deal with emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human dominated landscapes
- To deal with tiger depredation on livestock
- For active management towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at the landscape level.
- The three SOPs inter alia include the issue of managing dispersing tigers, managing livestock kills so as to reduce conflict as well as relocating tigers from source areas to areas where density of tiger is low, so that conflict in rich source areas does not occur.
- Project Tiger was launched in April 1973 during PM Indira Gandhi’s tenure.
- Project Tiger was launched in Jim Corbett National Park.
- The project is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
- It aims– at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction etc.
- Under this project the govt. has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
- Currently, the Project Tiger coverage has increased to 50 Tiger Reserves, spread out in 18 tiger range states.
- The tiger reserves are constituted on a core/buffer strategy.
- The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary.
- Whereas the buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple use area.
- It is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
- It has an overarching supervisory/coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- The NTCA was launched in 2005, following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
- It was given statutory status by 2006 amendment of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
GS- 2nd Paper
Topic– Schemes for the vulnerable sections of the society.
Pension scheme for shopkeepers, traders
The progress of the ‘Pension scheme for shopkeepers, traders’ is being reviewed for taking initiatives under Mission Mode.
- The Government has approved a new scheme that offers pension coverage to the trading community.
- This is a part of the Prime Minister’s vision to provide a robust architecture of universal social security.
- Its originally proposed name was, Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-dhan Scheme.
- It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme.
- Enrolment to the Scheme is done through the Common Service Centres, with its network of 3.50 lakh Centres across the country.
Features of this Scheme
- Under this scheme all shopkeepers, retail traders and self-employed persons are assured a minimum monthly pension of Rs. 3,000/- month after attaining the age of 60 years.
- All small shopkeepers and self-employed persons as well as the retail traders with GST turnover below Rs. 1.5 crore and age between 18-40 years, can enrol for this scheme.
- The scheme would benefit more than 3 crore small shopkeepers and traders.
- The scheme is based on self-declaration as no documents are required except Aadhaar and bank account.
- Interested persons can enrol themselves through more than 3,25,000 Common Service Centres spread across the country.
- The Government of India will make matching contribution in the subscribers’ account.
GS- 3rd Paper
Topic– Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
FAME India scheme
Performance of Fame India Scheme has been reviewed.
About FAME India scheme
- FAME India is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan.
- Main thrust of FAME is to encourage electric vehicles by providing subsidies.
- FAME-India Scheme is implementing by Department of Heavy Industry in order to promote manufacturing of electric and hybrid vehicle technology and to ensure sustainable growth of the same.
- It is being implemented in two phases.
- Phase-I [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid) & Electric Vehicles in India] from 1st April 2015.
- The Phase-II of the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid) & Electric Vehicles.
- (FAME-India) Scheme proposes to give a push to electric vehicles (EVs) in public transport and seeks to encourage adoption of EVs by way of market creation and demand aggregation.
Key features of FAME 2 scheme
- FAME 2 scheme aims to boost electric mobility and increase the number of electric vehicles in commercial fleets.
- The government will provide the incentives for electric buses, three-wheelers and four-wheelers to be used for commercial purposes.
- The centre will invest in setting up charging stations, with the active participation of public sector units and private players.
- Projects for charging infrastructure will include those needed to extend electrification for running vehicles such as pantograph charging and flash charging.
- FAME 2 will also encourage interlinking of renewable energy sources with charging infrastructure.
- India needs auto industry’s active participation to ease electric mobility transition.
- The auto and battery industries could collaborate to enhance customer awareness and promote domestic manufacturing.
- Government needs to focus on a phased manufacturing plan to promote EVs, provide fiscal and non-fiscal incentives for phased manufacturing of EVs and batteries.
Blue Flag Certification for beaches
- The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has embarked upon a programme for ‘Blue Flag’ Certification for select beaches in the country.
- This Certification is accorded by an international agency “Foundation for Environment Education, Denmark”.
- It is based on 33 stringent criteria in four major heads i.e.
- Environmental Education and Information,
- Bathing Water Quality,
- Environment Management and Conservation and
- Safety and Services in the beaches.
What is Blue Flag Beach?
The ‘Blue Flag’ beach is an Eco-tourism model endeavouring to provide to the tourists/beach goers clean and hygienic bathing water, facilities/amenities, safe and healthy environment and sustainable development of the area.