PIB – September 12 , 2019


GS- 2nd Paper

Topics Covered– Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

6th schedule of the constitution

Context

NCST Writes to Union Home Minister & Union Tribal Affairs Minister Conveying Its recommendation to Include Union Territory of Ladakh Under 6th Schedule of Constitution of India.

 About

  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) took note of the fact that the newly created Union Territory of Ladakh is predominantly a tribal region in the country.
  • The total tribal population in Ladakh region is more than 97 percent. The region is inhabited by following Scheduled Tribes-
  1. Balti
  2. Beda
  3. Bot, Boto
  4. Brokpa, Drokpa, Dard, Shin
  5. Changpa
  6. Garra
  7. Mon

Sixth Schedule of Indian Constitution

  • It deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram as per Article 244.

Key provisions

  • The governor is empowered to organise and re-organise the autonomous districts.
  • If there are different tribes in an autonomous district, the governor can divide the district into several autonomous regions.
  • Each autonomous district has a district council consisting of 30 members, of whom four are nominated by the Governor and the remaining 26 are elected on the basis of adult franchise.
  • The elected members hold office for a term of five years (unless the council is dissolved earlier) and nominated members hold office during the pleasure of the governor.
  • Each autonomous region also has a separate regional council.
  • The district and regional councils administer the areas under their jurisdiction.
  • They can make laws on certain specified matters like land, forests, canal water, shifting cultivation, village administration, inheritance of property, marriage and divorce, social customs and so on.
  • All such laws require the assent of the Governor.
  • The district and regional councils within their territorial jurisdictions can constitute village councils or courts for trial of suits and cases between the tribes.
  • They hear appeals from them. The jurisdiction of High Court over these suits and cases is specified by the Governor.
  • The acts of Parliament or the state legislature do not apply to autonomous districts and autonomous regions or apply with specified modifications and exceptions.
  • The Governor can appoint a commission to examine and report on any matter relating to the administration of the autonomous districts or regions.
  • The Governor may dissolve a district or regional council on the recommendation of the commission.

Why Ladakh should be in 6th schedule?

  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) recommends that the Union Territory of Ladakh be brought under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
  • The Commission feels that this will help in-
  1. Democratic devolution of powers;
  2. Preserve and promote distinct culture of the region.
  3. Protect agrarian rights including rights on land
  4. Enhance transfer of funds for speedy development of Ladakh region.

GS- 2nd Paper

Topic covered- Issues relating to poverty and hunger. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability.

One Nation One Ration Card Scheme

Context

Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution asserted that Indian Standards should be set as per global benchmarks and just like other countries enforce their standards on imported products.

About the Scheme

  • Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, recently announced One Nation One Ration Card Scheme, which all states needs to implement by July 2020.
  • One Nation One Ration Card’ scheme seeks to provide portability of food security benefits all across the nation.

Aims

  • It aims that no poor person is deprived of getting subsidised food grains under the food security scheme when they shift from one place to another.
  • It also aims to remove the chance of anyone holding more than one ration card to avail benefits from different states.

Key features of the Scheme

  • One Nation One Ration Card scheme is to ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.
  • This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption.
  • Inter-state portability will enable beneficiaries from either States’ cluster to avail the benefits accruing to them under the National Food Security Act from any of the two States.
  • The poor migrant workers will be able to buy subsidised rice and wheat from any ration shop in the country but for that their ration cards must be linked to Aadhaar.
  • Migrants would only be eligible for the subsidies supported by the Centre, which include rice sold at Rs. 3/kg and wheat at Rs. 2/kg,.
  • It would not include subsidies given by their respective state government in some other state.

National Food Security Act

  • Government of India enacted National Food Security Act (NFSA) in July, 2013.
  • It gives legal entitlement to 67% of the population (75% in rural areas and 50% in urban areas) to receive highly subsidized foodgrains.
  • Under the Act, foodgrain is allocated @ 5 kg per person per month for priority households category and @ 35 kg per family per month for AAY families at a highly subsidized prices of Rs. 1/-, Rs. 2/- and Rs. 3/- per kg for nutri-cereals, wheat and rice respectively.
  • Coverage under the Act is based on the population figures of Census, 2011.
  • The basic concept of food security globally is to ensure that all people, at all times, should get access to the basic food for their active and healthy life and is characterized by availability, access, utilization and stability of food.
  • Food security can also be derived from the fundamental right to life enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution, as it may be interpreted to include right to live with human dignity, which may include the right to food and other basic necessities.

GS- 2nd Paper

Topic coveredWelfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.

National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons

Context

Prime Minister launches National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons.

About the Scheme

  • The Prime Minister of India launched the National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons in Ranchi.
  • It is a pension scheme for the Vyaparis (shopkeepers/retail traders and self-employed persons) with annual turnover not exceeding Rs 1.5 crore.

Key features

  • Under this scheme all shopkeepers, retail traders and self-employed persons are assured a minimum monthly pension of Rs. 3,000/- month after attaining the age of 60 years.
  • All small shopkeepers and self-employed persons as well as the retail traders with GST turnover below Rs. 1.5 crore and age between 18-40 years, can enroll for this scheme.
  • To take the benefits of this scheme, the applicants should not be covered under the National Pension Scheme, Employees’ State Insurance Scheme and the Employees’ Provident Fund or be an Income Tax assessee.
  • The scheme would benefit more than 3 crore small shopkeepers and traders.
  • The scheme is based on self-declaration as no documents are required except Aadhaar and bank account.
  • Interested persons can enrol themselves through more than 3,25,000 Common Service Centres spread across the country.
  • The Government of India will make matching contribution in the subscribers’ account.

For Prelims-

Exercise Maitree – 2019

Context

Indo-Thailand Joint Military Exercise Maitree – 2019

Highlights

  • Joint Military Exercise MAITREE-2019 between India and Thailand will be conducted at Foreign Training Node, Umroi (Meghalaya).
  • Indian and Royal Thailand Army (RTA) comprising 50 soldiers each will participate in the exercise.
  • Exercise MAITREE is an annual training event which is being conducted alternatively in Thailand and India since 2006.
  • Significance– Exercise MAITREE with Thailand is a significant in terms of the security challenges faced by both the nations in the backdrop of changing facets of global terrorism.
  • The scope of this exercise covers company level joint training on counter terrorism operations in jungle and urban scenario.

Government e Marketplace (GeM)

Context

GeM and Punjab Government sign MoU for Setting up Project Management Unit.

Highlights

  • GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry of Commerce and Industries.
  • It uses technology to remove entry barriers for bonafide sellers and has created a vibrant e-marketplace with a wide range of goods and services.
  • GeM aims to enhance transparency, efficiency and speed in public procurement.
  • It facilitates online procurement of common use Goods & Services required by various Government Departments / Organisations / PSUs.
  • It provides the tools of e-bidding, reverse e-auction and demand aggregation to facilitate the government users, achieve the best value for their money.