GS- 3rd Paper
Topic- Disaster and disaster management.
The India Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued an orange alert in Indian states of West Bengal and Odisha over Cyclone Bulbul in the Bay of Bengal.
- Cyclone Bulbul is steadily gathering intensity over the Bay of Bengal and is predicted to soon turn into a very severe cyclonic storm.
- Cyclone Bulbul will head towards West Bengal and Bangladesh
- Cyclone Bulbul is the 7th named storm of this cyclone season
- Cyclone Bulbul is expected to bring rainfall over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, north coastal Odish and coastal West Bengal.
Code of warning
Yellow – Cyclone alert
Orange – Cyclone Warning
Red – Potential Landfall Outlook
What are the cyclones?
- A cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. It is distinguished by swift and often destructive air circulation.
- Meteorologically it is classified into two categories:
- Tropical cyclones
- Temperate cyclones or Extratropical cyclones
- Tropical cyclones are of thermal origin. It is caused by the warmness of ocean water and low air pressure
- It occurs betweenTropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
- The temperate cyclone is of frontal origin. Extratropical cyclones generally occur outside the tropics and in the middle latitudes of Earth between 30° and 60° latitude.
What are Tropical Cyclones?
- Tropical Cyclones are low pressure systems that form over warm tropical waters and have strong wind force exceeding 63 km/h to 90 km/h near the centre.
- They derive their energy from the warm tropical oceans waters having temperatures of 27° C or more which feeds the storm.
- After their formation they can persist over lower sea-surface temperatures.
- Tropical cyclones associated with the convergence of wind rotating inwards to the low-pressure point forming a closed cyclonic vortex.
- Coriolis forceand the rapid inward circulation to the low-pressure area is the reason behind the formation of the cyclonic vortex.
- The circular eye or centre of a tropical cyclone is an area characterised by light winds and often by clear skies. Eye diameters are typically 40 km but can range from under 10 km to over 100 km.
- In the middle is the center of the low-pressure area which is called EYE region where the atmosphere is calm.
- The area around the eye region is called Eyewall and it is surrounded by a dense ring of cloud about 16 km high which makes the belt of strongest winds and heaviest rainfall.
- Tropical Cyclones are associated with cumulonimbus cloudwith torrential rainfall due to which flooding and damaging storm surges that can cause inundation of low-lying coastal areas.
Categories of tropical cyclone
- According to the wind speed, Tropical Cyclones are classified in to five categories:
- Category 1: Less than 125 km/h strong winds – Minimal house damage. Damage to some crops, trees and caravans. Boats may drag moorings.
- Category 2: 125 – 164 km/h Destructive winds – Minor house damage. Significant damage to signs, trees and caravans. Heavy damage to some crops. Risk of power failure. Small boats may break moorings.
- Category 3: 165 – 224 km/h Very destructive winds – Some roof and structural damage.
- Category 4: 225 – 279 km/h Very destructive winds – Significant roofing and structural damage
- Category 5: More than 280 km/h extremely destructive winds – Extremely dangerous with widespread destruction.
Favourable Conditions for Tropical Cyclone Formation
- Large sea surface with temperature more than 27-degree Celsius.
- Presence of the Coriolis force enough to create a cyclonic vortex
- A low-pressure condition whereITCZforms between 5 to 8 degree north and south of the equator.
- An adequate amount of vapour supplythrough evaporation.
- Differential heatingof land and sea.
- Small variations in the vertical wind speed
- Strong anticyclonic divergencein the upper atmosphere.
Effects of cyclones
- Strong winds/Squalls: high-speed winds of tropical cyclones cause severe damage to the infrastructure. Installations, dwellings, communication system etc. and destroyed lives and property.
- Storm surge:Severe tropical cyclone cause an abnormal rise in sea level results in the drowning of low lying areas in the coastal region. Due to which there is loss of lives, destruction of vegetation and the salt content in seawater reduces the soil fertility.
- Heavy rainfall:Torrential rains cause floods resulting in loss of shelter. Also cyclonic rainfall causes landslides, soil erosion and weaken the embankments.
- Tropical cyclone in India
- India with a long coastline of 7516.16 km is one of the worst affected regions, where it is exposed to around 10% of tropical cyclones in the world.
- The Bay of Bengal, located in the northeast of the Indian Ocean, is responsible for the formation of some of the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclones in the world.
- Majority of the cyclones affecting India originates from the Bay of Bengal striking the eastern coast.
- The Arabian Sea is located in the northwest of the Indian Ocean. The ratio of occurrence of cyclone between the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea is approximately 4:1.
- Storms typically do not reach a high intensity in the Arabian Sea due to dry air coming from the desert of the Arabian Peninsula and unfavorable wind shear from the monsoon.
- In Indian Ocean cyclones mainly occur during the month of May, June, October, and November.
7th Named Storm
- Cyclone Bulbul, whose name was contributed by Pakistan, is the seventh the series of named cyclones of this season.
The season has seen –
- Cyclone Pabuk (South China Sea-Andaman Sea),
- Cyclone Fani (Bay of Bengal),
- Cyclone Vayu (Arabian Sea),
- Cyclone Hikka (Arabian Sea),
- Cyclone Kyarr (Arabian Sea) and
- Cyclone Maha (Arabian Sea).
Naming of cyclones
- The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) has devised a mechanism where countries submit a list of names from time to time.
- Names of cyclones are chosen from this pool.
- For cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, the naming system was agreed by eight member countries of a group called WMO/ESCAP and took effect in 2004.
- These eight countries are – Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
GS- 2nd Paper
Topic- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
National Capital Region -2041
The inaugural conclave “NCR-2041” will be held in the national capital.
- The Regional Plan-2041 for NCR will be among the key instruments to address various issues related to harmonious development of the largest metropolitan region of the world.
Theme- The theme for NCR-2041 will be “Planning for Tomorrow’s Greatest Capital Region”
- The Regional Plan with the horizon year 2021 was notified on 17th of September 2005 and is presently in force.
- A Regional Plan with next horizon year 2041 is required to be prepared now.
- The Regional Plan addresses various sectors namely Transport, Water, Sewerage, Solid Waste, Power, Regional Land use, etc.
- As per a report by United Nation, Delhi is slated to become the world’s largest metropolis overtaking Tokyo by 2028.
National Capital Region (NCR)
- The National Capital Region (NCR) is a distinct federal setup having the National Capital Territory of Delhi as its core.
- It is a unique example of inter-state regional planning and development.
- The NCR covers around 55,083 sq.kms. of area with around 60 million population.
- The constituent areas of the National Capital Region are as under-
- Entire National Capital Territory of Delhi
- Haryana sub-region comprises of districts of Gurugram, Faridabad, Rohtak, Sonepat, Rewari, Jhajjar, Mewat, Palwal, Panipat, Mahendregarh, Jind, Karnal, Bhiwani and Charkhi Dadri.
- Rajasthan sub-region comprises of districts of Alwar and Bharatpur.
- Uttar Pradesh Sub-region comprises of districts of Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Meerut, Bulandsahr, Baghpat, Hapur, Muzaffarnagar and Shamli.
Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)
Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of India has declined by 8 points in one year as per the latest Special Bulletin on MMR released by the Registrar General of India.
- Maternal Mortality Rate is death of such women per 100,000 live births.
- Maternal and child mortality and morbidity are taken as important health indicators because they reflect the state of female healthcare.
- According to WHO, Maternal Mortality is death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.