PIB – February 8 , 2020


General Studies-III

Topic- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Steps to reduce Dependency on Monsoon

Context

Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare in Rajya Sabha detailed the steps haves been taken to reduce Dependency on Monsoon.

About

  • The Water Resources Projects are planned, funded, executed and maintained by the State Governments themselves, as per their own resources and priority.
  • Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY).

Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)

The Central Government implements Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) / Central Sector (CS) Schemes such as:

  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY),
  • Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP),
  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY),
  • The Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP),
  • National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP), etc

Center-States cooperation

Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare through ICAR-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, has prepared detailed crop Contingency Plans for 650 districts.

States have been advised for preparing, updating, and fine-tuning Contingency Plans for each district in consultation with CRIDA-ICAR.

  • To mitigate the advance impact of drought, State Governments are advised to initiate advance remedial action e.g.
  • constructing water harvesting structures under MGNREGA and other such schemes,
  • promoting agronomic practices for moisture conservation,
  • promoting cultivation of less water consuming crops and restoring irrigation infrastructure by desilting canals,
  • energizing tube-wells and replacing/repairing faulty pumps.
  • Further, the States are also advised to carry out periodic assessment of preparation for kharif crops, particularly contingency crops.

Kisan Portal

  • Kisan Portal subsumes all mobile based initiatives in the field of agriculture and allied sector.
  • Scientists and Experts from all organizations and Department of the Government of India and State Governments {including State Agricultural Universities (SAUs), Krishi Vigyan Kendras(KVKs) and Agro- Meteorological Field Units (AMFUs)} are using this Portal for disseminating information (giving topical & seasonal advisories and providing services through SMSs to farmers in their local languages) on various agricultural activities to registered farmers.

Way forward

The activities being undertaken inter alia include ridge area treatment, drainage line treatment, soil and moisture conservation, rain water harvesting, nursery raising, afforestation, horticulture, pasture development, livelihoods for asset less persons etc.

 A Comprehensive Study

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)

Background

  • Out of about 141 m.Ha of net area sown in the country, about 65 million hectare (or 45%) is presently covered under irrigation.
  • Substantial dependency on rainfall makes cultivation in unirrigated areas a high risk, less productive profession.
  • Empirical evidences suggest that assured or protective irrigation encourages farmers to invest more in farming technology and inputs leading to productivity enhancement and increased farm income.
  • The overreaching vision of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) is to ensure access to some means of protective irrigation to all agricultural farms in the country, to produce ‘per drop more crop’, thus bringing much desired rural prosperity.

About PMKSY

PMKSY has been conceived amalgamating ongoing schemes viz.

  • Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of the Ministry of Water Resources,
  • River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR),
  • Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources (DoLR) and
  • On Farm Water Management (OFWM) of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC).

Implementation

  • The scheme will be implemented by Ministries of Agriculture, Water Resources and Rural Development.
  • Ministry of Rural Development is to mainly undertake rain water conservation, construction of farm pond, water harvesting structures, small check dams and contour bunding etc.
  • MoWR, RD &GR, is to undertake various measures for creation of assured irrigation source, construction of diversion canals, field channels, water diversion/lift irrigation, including development of water distribution systems.
  • Ministry of Agriculture will promote efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices like:
  1. drips, sprinklers, pivots, rain-guns in the farm “(Jal Sinchan)”,
  2. construction of micro-irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities,
  3. Extension activities for promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures.

Objectives

The broad objectives of PMKSY include

  • Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level (preparation of district level and, if required, sub district level water use plans).
  • Enhance the physical access of water on the farm and expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko pani).
  • Integration of water source, distribution and its efficient use, to make best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices.
  • Improve on – farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage and increase availability both in duration and extent.
  • Enhance the adoption of precision – irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop).
  • Enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
  • Ensure the integrated development of rainfed areas using the watershed approach towards soil and water conservation, regeneration of ground water, arresting runoff, providing livelihood options and other NRM activities.
  • Promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.
  • Explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri – urban agriculture.
  • Attract greater private investments in irrigation.

Programme Components

PMKSY has the following programme components:

  1. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
  • To focus on faster completion of ongoing Major and Medium Irrigation including National Projects.
  1. PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani)
  • Creation of new water sources through Minor Irrigation (both surface and ground water)
  • Repair, restoration and renovation of water bodies; strengthening carrying capacity of traditional water sources, construction rain water harvesting structures (Jal Sanchay);
  • Command area development, strengthening and creation of distribution network from source to the farm;
  • Ground water development in the areas where it is abundant, so that sink is created to store runoff/ flood water during peak rainy season.
  • Creating and rejuvenating traditional water storage systems like
  1. Jal Mandir (Gujarat);
  2. Khatri, Kuhl (H.P.);
  3. Zabo (Nagaland);
  4. Eri, Ooranis (T.N.);
  5. Dongs (Assam);
  6. Katas, Bandhas (Odisha and M.P.) etc. at feasible locations. 
  1. PMKSY (Per Drop More Crop)
  • Programme management, preparation of State/District Irrigation Plan, approval of annual action plan, Monitoring etc.
  • Promoting efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices like drips, sprinklers, pivots, rain – guns in the farm (Jal Sinchan);
  • Construction of micro irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities including tube wells and dug wells.
  • Secondary storage structures at tail end of canal system to store water when available in abundance (rainy season) or from perennial sources like streams for use during dry periods through effective on – farm water management;
  • Water lifting devices like diesel/ electric/ solar pumpsets including water carriage pipes, underground piping system.
  • Extension activities for promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures including cropping alignment to maximise use of available water including rainfall and minimise irrigation requirement (Jal sarankchan);
  • Capacity building, training and awareness campaign and management practices including community irrigation.
  1. PMKSY (Watershed Development)
  • Effective management of runoff water and improved soil & moisture conservation activities such as ridge area treatment, drainage line 5 treatment, rain water harvesting, in – situ moisture conservation and other allied activities on watershed basis.
  • Converging with MGNREGS for creation of water source to full potential in identified backward rainfed blocks including renovation of traditional water bodies.

General Studies- II

Topic- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS)

Context

National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) has helped to reduce the drop-out rate at the secondary and senior secondary classes- HRD Minister

About

  • The Union Minister for Human Resource Development updated the progress of National Means Cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) in the written reply tabled in the Rajya Sabha during Budget Session 2020.
  • The Central Sector Scheme ‘National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme’ (NMMSS) is being implemented since 2008.

Objective

To award scholarships to meritorious students of economically weaker sections to arrest their drop out at class VIII and encourage them to continue the study at secondary stage.

Key features

  • It is the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) which was launched in 2008.
  • Students whose parental income from all sources is not more than Rs. 1,50,000/- per annum are eligible to avail the scholarships.
  • The students studying in Kendriya Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, Residential Schools run by the State Government Institutions and private schools are not eligible for the scholarship under this scheme.
  • An evaluation study conducted by the National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) in 2017 states that about 70.1% beneficiary students would have been unable to continue their studies without this scholarship.
  • Additionally, students selected under NMMSS register better performance in Class IX, X, XI and XII in order to continue getting the scholarship for the next four consecutive years.

National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration

  • The National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) were established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
  • The National Institute has its origin dating back to 1962 when the UNESCO established the Asian Regional Centre for Educational Planners and Administrators which later became the Asian Institute of Educational Planning and Administration in 1965.
  • Subsequently, with the increased roles and functions it was renamed as the National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) in 1979.