PIB – February 11 , 2020

General Studies-III

Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)


CMS COP-13 is being hosted by India at Gandhinagar, Gujrat.


  • The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) is going to be hosted by India at Gandhinagar in Gujarat.
  • The 13th COP of the CMS is an environmental treaty under the aegis of United Nations Environment Programme.

Theme of CMS COP13

  • The theme of CMS COP13 in India is, ‘Migratory species connect the planet and we welcome them home’.
  • The CMS COP 13 logo is inspired by ‘Kolam’, a traditional artform from southern India.
  • In the logo of CMS COP-13, Kolam art form is used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13

  • The mascot for CMS COP13 is “Gibi – The Great Indian Bustard”.
  • ‘Gibi’ is a critically endangered species which has been accorded the highest protection status under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

  • CMS is an environmental treaty of the United Nations Signed in 1979.
  • It provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
  • CMS is the only global and UN-based intergovernmental organisation established exclusively for the conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.

What are Migratory species?

  • Migratory species are those animals that move from one habitat to another during different times of the year, due to various factors such as food, sunlight, temperature, climate, etc.
  • The movement between habitats, can sometimes exceed thousands of miles/kilometres for some migratory birds and mammals.
  • A migratory route can involve nesting and also requires the availability of habitats before and after each migration.
  • Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I of the Convention.
  • Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention.

Functions of CMS Parties

  • CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live.
  • They mitigate obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them.
  • CMS establish obligations for each State joining the Convention.
  • CMS promotes concerted action among the Range States of many of these species.
  • CMS acts as a framework Convention.
  • The agreements may range from legally binding treaties (called Agreements) to less formal instruments, and can be adapted to the requirements of particular regions.

Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and India

  • Hosting CMS COP-13 is a significant step towards wildlife conservation in India.
  • As the host, India shall be designated the President for the next three years.
  • The Government of India is Signatory to the Convention on Conservation of Migratory wild Animals (CMS) since 1983.
  • The Government of India has been taking necessary actions to protect and conserve migratory marine species.
  • Seven species that include Dugong, Whale Shark, Marine Turtle (two species), have been identified for preparation of Conservation and Recovery Action Plan.

Key Note

The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e, the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

General Studies-III

Topic- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Godavari and Kaveri River Linking Project


The draft Detailed Project Report (DPR) of Godavari and Kaveri River Linking Project has been completed by National Water Development Agency (NWDA). 

About Godavari and Krishna interlinking

  • The proposal to link Godavari, which is prone to flooding and Krishna and doesn’t have enough water, has been around for several decades.
  • While river-interlinking for the purposes of navigation as an idea was mooted by the British in India.
  • In 1972, engineer and Union Minister KL Rao proposed the linking of Godavari and Krishna for irrigation.
  • The Union Minister for Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation announced that the Centre would soon take up a major project to Link Rivers Godavari and Cauvery.


  • The objective of the project is to make good use of about 1100 tmc ft of Godavari water that currently drained into the sea.
  • The project would take the water from river Godavari to the tail end of Tamil Nadu.
  • The project aims to make good use of about 1100 tmc ft of Godavari water that is currently getting drained into the Bay of Bengal.


  • The government aims to raise finances for the project either from the World Bank or the Asian Development Bank as the project cost is about Rs 50,000 crore to Rs 60,000 crore.


  • The government aims to address the water deficit being faced and the resulting water dispute among the riparian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Union Territory of Puducherry over sharing of the water from river Cauvery.
  • The project would use low thickness steel pipes with a special treatment for linking Godavari and Cauvery rather than canals as it results in water loss due to evaporation losses.
  • The use of use low thickness steel pipes would also aid in reducing the project costs.

For Prelims

National Deworming Day (NDD)

The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare conducts the tenth round of the National Deworming Day (NDD) to benefit estimated 30 crore children, adolescents.


  • To reduce the prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH), commonly called the parasitic intestinal worms, among all children and adolescents.


  • Launched in 2015, the NDD is the largest public health program implemented on a single day reaching crores of children and adolescents through two NDD rounds every year.
  • NDD is a key intervention of Anemia Mukt Bharat.
  • Its success and impact lie in convergence with the Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • NDD presents opportunities to further policy dialogue on health and nutrition as a way of supplementing efforts under POSHAN Abhiyaan.

Mt. Aconcagua


  • Kaamya Karthikeyan, a twelve year old Indian student, has become the youngest girl in the world to summit Mt. Aconcagua.
  • Aconcagua is the highest peak in South America.
  • Aconcagua( 6962 metres,) is the highest peak outside Asia.
  • It lies in the Southern Andes (the world’s longest mountain range that is located along the entire western coast of South America).