PIB – December 31 , 2019


General Studies- II

Topic- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

e-BCAS Project: Training Module

Context

Biometric enabled Centralised Access Control System (CACS) &Training Module of e-BCAS Project launched – Aims to digitise employee movement process at airports.

e-BCAS Project

  • The ‘e-BCAS’ project envisaged to achieve a “paperless office” under e-Governance initiative of GoI.
  • It’s aimed -at facilitating external stakeholders to access BCAS system by digital automation of all internal office procedures in 2016.
  • Features- The e-BCAS project included Training module, Quality Control and Operational module and Administration etc.
  • Expected outcome- In due course of time, with the integration of all three modules into the platform of e-BCAS, the processing time in giving clearances and approvals will be reduced considerably.
  • Benefit- These steps will ease the process of training, audit/inspections, enhance the throughput as well as a lot of time, energy and precious man hours of all stakeholders.

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS)

  • The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security was initially set up as a Cell in the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) in January 1978.
  • It was setup on the recommendation of  the Pande Committee  constituted  in the  wake of the hijacking  of the Indian Airlines  flight  on  10th September , 1976. 
  • The role of the Cell was to coordinate, monitor, inspect and train personnel in Civil Aviation Security matters.
  • The BCAS was reorganized into an independent department on 1st April, 1987 under the Ministry of Civil Aviation as a sequel to the Kanishka Tragedy in June 1985.  
  • The main responsibility of BCAS are lay down standards and measures in respect of security of civil flights at International and domestic airports in India.

General Studies-III

Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index

Context

NITI Aayog today released the second edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index.

About

  • NITI Aayog released the second edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index.
  • It comprehensively documents the progress made by India’s States and Union Territories towards achieving the 2030 SDG targets.

What is SDG India Index?

  • The SDG India Index has been launched by NITI Aayog.
  • The SDGs are a set of 17 broad-based global goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015.
  • The SDGs are intended to be achieved by 2030.
  • With one-sixth of the world’s population, India is key to the achievement of the goals.
  • The index comprises a composite score for each State and UTs based on their aggregate performance across 13 of the 17 SDGs.
  • The score, ranging between 0 and 100, denotes the average performance of the State/UT towards achieving the goals and their respective targets.

SDG India Index and Dashboard 2019–20

  • The SDG India Index and Dashboard 2019 documents the progress made by India’s States and Union Territories (UTs) towards implementing the 2030 SDG targets.
  • The Index and Dashboard also charts distance to be travelled to reach SDG targets.
  • It has been developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), United Nations in India, and Global Green Growth Institute
  • Index and Dashboard 2019 covers 16 out of 17 SDGs and a qualitative assessment on Goal 17.
  • This marks an improvement over 2018 Index, which covered only 13 goals.
  • On the basis of progress made, the Index ranks all States and UTs on 100 indicators drawn from MoSPI’s National Indicator Framework, comprising of 306 indicators.

Key findings of SDG India Index 2019

  • Kerala tops states in progress towards UN Sustainable Development Goals, while Bihar is at the bottom of Niti Aayog’s SDG Index.
  • Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim have joined all the southern states in the top tier of front runners who scored more than 65 points, out of a possible 100.
  • Bihar, Jharkhand and Arunchal Pradesh are the worst performing states in this year’s Index for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • Ending hunger and achieving gender equality are the areas where most states fall far short, with the all-India scores for these goals at 35 and 42 points respectively.
  • On the other hand, Niti Aayog has given India an overall score of 60 points.
  • It is largely because of progress in clean energy and sanitation (88); peace, justice and strong institutions (72); and affordable and clean energy (70).

The second SDG – zero hunger

  • It shows sharp divergence in the performance of states, with little middle ground.
  • Kerala, Goa and parts of the north-east — including Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim – have scored above 65, with Goa at 75 points.
  • However, 22 of the states and union territories have scored below 50.
  • The central Indian states of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Chhattisgarh scoring below 30, showing abysmal levels of hunger and malnutrition.
  • The chosen indicators are related to child stunting, obesity and anaemia, as well as agricultural production and subsidised food distribution.

On the fifth SDG – gender equality

  • Almost all states fare poorly.
  • Only Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala have managed to cross 50 points.
  • The indicators considered include crimes against women, eradicating sex selection and discrimination against daughters, and access to reproductive health schemes.
  • As well as indicators showing women’s economic and political empowerment and leadership.
  • A sex ratio of 896 females per 1000 males, a 5% female labour participation rate.
  • One in three women experience spousal violence all contribute to a low score countrywide.

Way forward

  • NITI Aayog has the twin mandate to oversee the implementation of SDGs in the country and promote competitive and cooperative federalism among States and UTs.
  • The SDG India Index acts as a bridge between these mandates, aligning the SDGs with Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwas, and the five Ps of the global SDG movement: people, planet, prosperity, partnership and peace.
  • The SDG India Index 2019 will also help highlight crucial gaps related to monitoring SDGs and the need for improving statistical systems at the National/State/UT levels.
  • Further, the Index highlights the need for improvements in data collection, reporting and methodology.

General Studies-III

Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

What are the Sustainable Development Goals?

  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goalswere adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015.
  • 17 SDGs are adopted as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.

The 17 Self Development Goals are-

  • Goal 1: No Poverty
  • Goal 2: Zero Hunger
  • Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being
  • Goal 4: Quality Education
  • Goal 5: Gender Equality
  • Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
  • Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
  • Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
  • Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure
  • Goal 10: Reduced inequalities
  • Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
  • Goal 12: Responsible production and Consumption
  • Goal 13: Climate actions
  • Goal 14: Conserve life below water
  • Goal 15: Protect the life on land
  • Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions
  • Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals

SDGs and India

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) is being implemented to provide jobs to unskilled laborers and improve their living standards.
  • National Food Security Act is being enforced to provide subsidized food grains.
  • For Clean FuelIndia introduces BS-VI petrol and diesel.
  • Delhi will be the first city to leapfrog from BS-IV to BS-VI.
  • To reduce Plastics usesIndia has pledged to eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.
  • For clean energy India initiated International Solar Alliance (ISA).
  • ISA is a group of 121 solar rich countrieswhich are situated either on or between the tropics.
  • The government of India aims to make India open defecation freeby the year 2019 under its flagship programme Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
  • For improving the infrastructure aspects,Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) and Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) schemes has been launched.
  • India has expressed its intent to combat climate changeby ratifying the Paris Agreement.
  • India has committed to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
  • India has committed to achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030, with the help of transfer of technology and low-cost international finance, including from Green Climate Fund.
  • To create an additional carbon sinkof 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

General Studies- II

Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

HS Code (Harmonized System Code)

Context

Khadi gets separate unique HS code, export to get a boost.

About

  • The ministry of commerce and industries has allocated separate HS code for this signature fabric of India.

Significance of HS code for Khadi

  • Earlier, Khadi did not have its exclusive HS code.
  • As a result, all the data regarding export of this signature fabric used to come as a normal fabric under the textile head.
  • Now, HS code will help to keep a constant eye not only on our export figures, but it will also help in planning our export strategies.
  • Khadi and Village Industries products are eco-friendly and natural, and are in great demand in the International Markets.
  • Recognizing its potential to generate exports and its eco-friendly importance, the Ministry of Commerce had accorded deemed Export Promotional Council Status (EPCS) to KVIC in 2006, to boost the export of Khadi products.
  • However in the absence of separate HS code, the export of Khadi products was difficult to categorize and calculate.

What is an HS Code?

  • HS stands forHarmonized System.
  • It was developed by the WCO (World Customs Organization)as a multipurpose international product nomenclature that describes the type of good that is shipped.
  • Today, customs officers must use HS code to clear every commodity that enters or crosses any international borders.

HS Code Structure

The HS code can be described as follows-

  • It is a six-digit identification code.
  • It has 5000 commodity groups.
  • Those groups have 99 chapters.
  • Those chapters have 21 sections.
  • It’s arranged in a legal and logical structure.
  • Well-defined rules support it to realize uniform classification worldwide.
  • The code follows from the Kyoto Convention of 1974and facilitates the simplification and harmonization of Customs procedures.
  • The Kyoto Convention details the application of efficient procedures, as well as new and obligatory rules for their implementation.
  • As of January 2017, this convention has about 106 Contracting Signatories/Parties.

HS Code Usage

  • The HS system isused by over 200 countries and other economiesaround the world for the collection of international trade statistics, and as a basis for customs tariffs.
  • Over 98% of the goods involved in international trade are classified in terms of the HS Code.
  • In addition to governments, the code is also used by private-sector firms and international organizations.
  • It is utilized to monitor, update, and optimize controlled goods, internal taxes, rules of origin, trade policies, transport statistics, freight tariffs, compilation of national accounts, quota controls, price monitoring, traffic statistics, and economic research as well as analysis.
  • Thus, the HS code is regarded as an indispensable tool for international trade, universal economic language, and coding for commodities.
  • Today, HS codes are used extensively in electronic messages like the EDIFACT.
  • This has made it easier for the system to become a worldwide standard for describing a good across various platforms.
  • Its nearly universal usage allows authorities such as Port and Customs departments to identify the products.