Consider this question asked in UPSC Prelims 2018:
With reference to Indian history, who among the following is a future Buddha, yet to come to save the world?
About this question:
- This question belongs to the ‘art & culture’ section.
- Most of the candidates/aspirants did not know about some or all of the terms given in the options.
- The tendency is to leave such questions – as aspirants look for absolute and one-to one mapping to mark such questions. here most important is to trust ones preparation if one has read basic and standard sources well.
HACKS to attempt this question with minimum risk:
- It’s true that most of the candidates did not know about all the four terms given in the options.
- However, if one properly goes through the ‘Fine Arts’ book on “ Art & Heritage’ NCERT Class 11th, one can find three of the four terms given which are – Avalokiteshvara, Lokesvara, and Padmapani.
- If this NCERT is properly read, one can easily find that none of the three terms have any relation to ‘future Buddha’ i.e. reincarnation of Buddha. As NCERT would have mentioned such important fact.
- So, we are left with only one unknown term i.e. Maitreya, which is the correct answer.
- Hence one must have confidence that what all one has read – never had any such reference – so probably the term which was not seen before could be the answer.
- But above conclusion can be reached – only when one has read NCERT closely.
Added standalone facts:
Successor : Maitreya
- Maitreya , is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Predecessor : Kassapa Buddha
- Kassapa Buddha, is one of the ancient Buddhas whose biography is of the Buddhavamsa, one of the books of the Pāli Canon.
- According to Theravāda Buddhist tradition, Kassapa is the twenty-seventh of the twenty-nine named Buddhas and the third of the five Buddhas of the present kalpa.
The present kalpa is called a mahabhadrakalpa . The five Buddhas of the present kalpa are:
1.Kakusandha (1st Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
2.Konagamana (2nd Buddha -do-)
3.Kassapa (3rd Buddha -do-)
4.Gautama (4th and present Buddha -do-)
5.Maitreya (5th and future Buddha -do-)
- In Buddhism – Buddhahood is the conditioned of being awakened.
- In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it.