Essential Facts (Prelims): 25 January, 2019

Important Terms and Related Facts for IAS Prelims

Nitrogen Pollution

Category: Ecology & Environment

  • Eighteen research institutions in India are among a group of 50 institutions — called the South Asian Nitrogen Hub (SANH) — in the United Kingdom and South Asia that have secured £20 million (about ₹200 crore) from the U.K. government to assess and study the quantum and impact of “nitrogen pollution” in South Asia.
  • While nitrogen is the dominant gas in the atmosphere, it is inert and doesn’t react.
  • However, when it is released as part of compounds from agriculture, sewage and biological waste, nitrogen is considered “reactive”, and may pollute and even exert a potent greenhouse gas (heat trapping) effect.
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O) is 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide but isn’t as prevalent in the atmosphere. However, this is poised to grow.

Red Fort Declaration

Category: International Relations

  • India and South Africa will update their Strategic Partnership by agreeing on a comprehensive “roadmap” on the way ahead, as well as relaxing visa restrictions.
  • South African President Cyril Ramaphosa will be in India as the chief guest at the Republic Day parade.
  • The Strategic Partnership between India and South Africa, called the Red Fort Declaration, was signed in March 1997.


Category: Science & Technology

  • Sri Lanka’s maize farmers are battling a tiny but powerful enemy – the fall armyworm.
  • The fall armyworm is said to have come from India, carried by strong winds across the Palk Strait. F
  • The worm has acquired the local name sena (army) worm, as it comes in big groups and attacks crops, particularly maize.
  • The insect is known to be native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. It has travelled east to other tropical regions.
  • In recent months, fall armyworm infestations were reported in different parts of India, including Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Gujarat.


Category: Indian Economy

  • In December, the government tightened norms for e-commerce firms and barred online retailers like Flipkart and Amazon from selling products of the companies in which they have stakes.
  • The government also prohibited e-commerce companies from entering into an agreement for exclusive sale of products.
  • A vendor cannot procure more than 25% of products from group companies of the same marketplace where they intend to sell them.

 Public Credit Registry

Category: Indian Economy

  • The PCR has been envisaged as a database of core credit information – an infrastructure of sorts on which users of credit data can build further analytics.
  • It will facilitate linkages with related ancillary information systems outside the banking system, including corporate filings, tax systems (including the Goods and Services Network or GSTN), and utility payments.

Jan Shikshan Sansthans

Category: Social Sector

  • Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) are established to provide vocational training to non-literate, neo-literate, as well as school drop outs by identifying skills as would have a market in the region of their establishment.
  • Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs), have been categorized into three categories, namely, Category ‘A’, Category ‘B’ and Category ‘C’. Different quantum of assistance has been provided for each category.


Category: Social Sector

  • The Deendayal Antodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) is aimed at alleviation of rural poverty through building sustainable community institutions of the poor.
  • It seeks to mobilize about 9 crore households into SHGs and link them to sustainable livelihood opportunities by building their skills and enabling them to access formal sources of finance, entitlements and services from both public and private sectors.
  • It is envisaged that the intensive and continuous capacity building of rural poor women will ensure their social, economic and political empowerment and development.