PIB – October 15 , 2019


GS- 3rd Paper

Topic- Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Bluetongue sandwich ELISA (sELISA) and the JE lgM ELISA kit

Context

Two diagnostic kits developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) under the ‘Make in India’ initiative.

About

Under the ‘Make in India’ initiative, developed two diagnostic kits developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)- Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izzatnagar, Bareilly.

The Bluetongue sandwich ELISA (sELISA) and the Japanese Encephalitis lgM ELISA kit for the control of Swine and Detection of Antigen.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) ELISA Kit (IgM)

  • (JE) ELISA Kit (IgM) is for the control of Swine flu.
  • The JE is a re-emerging viral zoonotic disease leading to death of children every year in the country.
  • The kit developed by the ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute.
  • It is really helpful for assessing the active infection of JE virus in the swine population which predicts the outbreak of JE in the humans.
  • As compared to the commercial kit available in the market at a price of Rs. 52,000; the ICAR-IVRI developed is available for the farmers at a minimal price of Rs. 5,000 only.

Bluetongue: Sandwich ELISA

  • Sandwich ELISA kit is for detection of Antigen.
  • The Bluetongue (BT) virus is an insect-transmitted viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that includes the camelid species.
  • The disease is widespread among the sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes and camels in the country.
  • With the help of the Kit, the Bluetongue Virus can be controlled with the vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control and quarantine of infected animals with the good management practices.
  • Apart from the vaccination, the early diagnosis and isolation of the infected animals are one of the commonly suggested preventive methods for controlling the spreading of the disease.

Indian Veterinary Research Institute

  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) is located at Izatnagar, Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh state.
  • It is India’s premier advanced research facility in the field of veterinary medicine and allied branches.
  • It has regional campuses at Mukteshwar, Bangalore, Palampur, Bhopal, Kolkata and Srinagar.
  • Formerly known as Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory, it was renamed in 1925 as Imperial Veterinary Research Institute.
  • The name of the Institute was changed following independence to Indian Veterinary Research Institute.
  • Administrative control of the Institute is currently under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi.
  • The Ministry of Education, Govt. of India on the recommendation of University Grants Commission conferred the status of the Deemed to be University.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organization.
  • It works under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India.
  • It was formerly known as Imperial Council of Agricultural Research.
  • It was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture.
  • It is the largest network of agricultural research and education institutes in the world.
  • The ICAR has its headquarters at New Delhi.
  • The Council is the apex body for co-ordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country.

GS- 2nd Paper

Topic- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

World Coffee Conference (WCC) & Expo 2020

Context

Crowd Source Ideas for Innovative WCC & Expo 2020: Commerce & Industry Minister

About WCC 2020

  • The 5thWorld Coffee Conference (WCC)& Expo to be held in Bengaluru from September 7-12, 2020.
  • This is the first time that the World Coffee Conference and Expo will be held in Asia.
  • WCC is the flagship event of the global coffee sector with participation from over eighty five countries & growing by the year.

Unique Features – World Coffee Conference 2020

  • The International Coffee Organization (ICO) comprising its member countries meets twice a year for official meetings and once every four years it also conducts its official meetings in conjunction with World Coffee Conference in a member country.
  • A Unique Platform connecting the 78 Member Countries attended by over 200 representatives nominated by member countries to attend ICC meetings.
  • Over 1200 attendees from across continents which includes cross section of Coffee fraternity from Crop to Cup.
  • The event facilitates Country to Country, Region-to-Region ,Business to Business and Buyer-Seller Dialogue.

Why WCC 2020 in India?

  • India is the 5th largest export and producer in the coffee in the world and is emerging as the major coffee consuming country.
  • The Government of India has also a strong focus on increasing coffee plantation. The global community also desires to connect with coffee growers in India and Asia.
  • WCC 2020 offers an opportunity to explore India and Asia to the global coffee community.
  • Bengaluru is the coffee capital of India and produces nearly 70% of India’s coffee.

Theme of WCC 2020

  • The proposed theme of WCC 2020 is “sustainably through consumption “.
  • Because the world coffee production is increasing and having a negative impact on coffee prices, this can be offset by increasing consumption, therefore consumption is the key to sustainability.

The International Coffee Organization (ICO)

  • The International Coffee Organization (ICO) is the main intergovernmental organization for coffee.
  • It brings together exporting and importing Governments to tackle the challenges facing the world coffee sector through international cooperation.
  • Its Member Governments represent 98% of world coffee production and 67% of world consumption.
  • The ICO was set up in London in 1963 under the auspices of the United Nations because of the great economic importance of coffee.
  • It administers the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), an important instrument for development

For Prelims-

‘Dilli Series’ Sea Power Seminar – 2019

Context

‘Dilli Series’ Sea Power Seminar – 2019 to be conducted at Indian Naval Academy.

Highlights

  • Indian Naval Academy (INA), Ezhimala will host the prestigious Dilli Series Sea Power Seminar on 17th and 18th of October 2019.
  • The theme for this year’s seminar is “Role of Sea Power in Shaping of Nations”.
  • The seminar will be covered under three sub – themes
  1. Sea Power Vs Land Power – A Historical Perspective,
  2. Sea Power and Geo Economics
  3. Centrality of Sea Power to Global Politics.
  • The seminar, named after the historic Mount Dilli located within the INA, with considerable historical importance, has witnessed five earlier editions conducted to date.
  • The annual Dilli seminar helps young officers and cadets to keep an eye on developments in the maritime domain whilst simultaneously laying a strong foundation of history.

National Security Guard (NSG)

Context

35th Raising Day Ceremony of National Security Guard (NSG)was held at NSG HQ in Manesar, Gurugram.

Highlights

  • Union Minister for Home Affairs, Shri Amit Shah presided over as Chief Guest on the 35th Raising Day Ceremony of National Security Guard (NSG), at NSG HQ in Manesar, Gurugram.
  • The National Security Guard (NSG) is a counter terrorism unit under the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • It was raised in 15th October1984, following Operation Blue Star, Akshardham Temple attack and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, “for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect states against internal disturbances”.
  • It is not categorised under the uniform nomenclature of Central Armed Police Forces.
  • It has a special forces mandate, and its core operational capability is provided by the Special Action Group (SAG) which is drawn from the Indian Army.
  • The Special Rangers Group (SRG), the police component of NSG, which also handles VIP security, is composed of personnel on deputation from other Central Armed Police Forces and State Police Forces.
  • The NSG personnel are often referred to in the media as Black Cats because of the black outfit and black cat insignia worn on their uniform.

CSE-2020 | Prelims Daily Quiz 85 [ Questions ]


Questions


Q1. Consider the following statements about “Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences”

1. Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences is given by a five-member Committee elected by the Norwegian Parliament

2. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

3. Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer, are the winners of 2019 Sveriges Riksbank Prize.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above


Q2. Consider the following statements 

Assertion (A):  The rights of authors of literary and artistic works are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author.

Reason (R): Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds.

Select the correct answer from codes given below

a) Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

b) Both A and R are correct, and R is not correct explanation of A

c) A is correct while R is incorrect

d) A is incorrect while R is correct


Q3. Consider the following statements ‘G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance’:

1. G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance is a league of 15 of world’s leading city networks and technology governance organisations that will work towards advancing responsible and ethical use of smart city technologies. Established in June 2019.

2. India has joined the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance on Technology Governance.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2


Q4. What is ‘LOTUS-HR (Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuseplant)’?

a) King and Queen of the Kingdom of the Sweden launched the Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUS-HR) program.

b) LOTUS-HR (Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuseplant ) is a joint collaboration of India and Netherlands.

c) LOTUS-HR project was to demonstrate a novel holistic greenary management approaches that will produce clean environment.


Q5. Consider the following statements about ‘Asian Development Bank (ADB)’:

1. Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank

2. ADB was established on 19 December 1966, headquartered at Manila, Philippines.

3. It is modelled closely on the World Bank and has a unique weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with member country’s population.

4. ADB defines itself as a social development organization that is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1, 2 and 4 only

b) 2, 3 and 4 only

c) 1, 3 and 4 only

d) All of the above


Note 

1. Answers will be given tomorrow with Solution

2. You can post your answers in discussion section below and cross check your accuracy .

Objective of this exercise is to prepare you for PRELIMS 2020 on daily basis . If you do it sincerely and attempt a good Test Series under exam like conditions , we are sure it will help you in clearing Prelims examination.


Quiz 84

Questions –  https://chromeias.com/cse-2020-prelims-daily-quiz-84-questions/

Answers – https://chromeias.com/cse-2020-prelims-daily-quiz-84-answers/


Editorial Simplified : Leaning on the States | GS – II


Relevance :  GS Paper  II


Why has this issue cropped up?

The Fifteenth Finance Commission has been asked to examine a separate mechanism for funding of defence and internal security. This  has triggered some suggestions on the need to have a relook at and redesign of centrally sponsored schemes (CSS).


State should contribute

  • Bibek Debroy, chairman of EAC-PM, has recently stated that the Seventh Schedule is not cast in stone and that if the Union government is required to contribute to CSS in the State List, why should states not contribute to items in the Union List like defence.
  • He also states that any restructuring/rationalisation of the CSS requires a relook at the Seventh Schedule and that this must be done with consultation with the states in an appropriate forum.

The seventh schedule: not caste in stone

  • The Constitution (except fundamental rights) and, more particularly, the Seventh Schedule is not cast in stone.
  • There have been as many as 103 amendments so far including a few in the Seventh Schedule.
  • In fact, Article 368 provides for the amendment by introducing the bill in either house and passing it with a majority of the total membership of the house and at least two-thirds of members present and voting.
  • In addition, changes in Seventh Schedule requires ratification of the amendment by the legislatures of at least one-half of the states.
  • In fact, the 42nd amendment actually transferred five subjects from the State List to the Concurrent List which are: (a) Education; (b) forests ;(c) weights and measures ;(d) protection of wild animals and birds and (e) administration of justice; constitution and organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the High Court.

The rationale behind Central Sector Schemes (CSS)

  • The constitutional assignments between the central and subnational governments in federations are done broadly on the basis of their respective comparative advantage.
  • The provision of national public goods is in the federal domain and those with the state-level public service span are assigned to the states as the latter are assumed to have comparative advantage in providing these services according to the varied preferences of the people.
  • The transaction cost of providing state level public services at the central level is higher than scale economies. In addition, there are meritorious public services with inter-state spillovers and their efficient provision requires subsidisation.
  • Thus, while the provision of public services is mandated at subnational levels, financing is done either fully or partially by the Centre to ensure that a minimum standard of such services are provided across the country.
  • In the Indian context, for this reason, there are central sector and centrally-sponsored schemes. In the case of the former, funding is entirely by the Centre and states are merely implementing agencies.
  • The CSS is a shared cost programme and is meant to ensure a minimum standard of service across the country. In fact, many of the schemes are introduced by the Centre on subjects in the State List ostensibly for their externalities but also to have a direct appeal to the electorate.
  • Not surprisingly, several schemes were introduced and they are now restructured into 28 umbrella schemes classified into “core of the core”, “core” and “optional” with states’ contribution fixed at 30 per cent, 40 per cent and 50 per cent respectively for non-special category states.
  • In principle, these schemes have expiry dates, but going by past experience, they are never folded up and always get repackaged. In fact, each of the schemes has multiple objectives and service delivery standards are not clearly defined.
  • In principle, there should be consultations with states in designing the schemes, but this is hardly done. The classic example is the health insurance scheme announced by the prime minister in his Independence Day speech in 2018 which evolved into “Ayushman Bharat”.
  • The Finance Commissions are aware of the need for specific purpose transfers to ensure minimum standards of meritorious services and leave some fiscal space to the Centre to undertake CSS. Thus, the Fourteenth Finance Commission stated that the Union government should continue to have fiscal space to provide grants for functions that are broadly in the nature of ‘overlapping functions’ and for area-specific interventions.”

Can states pay for defraying expenditure on items in the Union List?

  • In fact, Article 282 has this provision when it states that the Union or a State may make any grants for any public purpose.
  • However, the important question is that should the states be asked to pay for defence? Here, there are two specific reasons why they should not.
    • First, defence is a national public good and keeping in view the principle that the beneficiaries of services should pay for it, it becomes the primary responsibility of the Centre to defray the cost of protecting all the people of the nation.
    • Second, given the fact that the assigned expenditure responsibilities of the states are much larger than their revenue potential, the Constitution provides for the sharing of taxes collected by the Centre and making grants to them from the consolidated fund of the Centre based on the recommendations of the Finance Commission.
  • The Finance Commission is supposed to take into account the capacities and needs of the Union and different states in making recommendations and the Centre’s need includes the requirements for defence of the country.
  • Once the commission makes recommendations after assessing the requirements including those for defence, the responsibility for defraying the expense falls on the Centre.
  • The states simply do not have the resources to spend beyond the subjects in their domain because the Finance Commission will not provide for it in its assessment.
  • Indeed, there is a need to reform the CSS. There should be consultations in formulating, designing and closing them down. “The one-size-fits-all” approach cannot succeed in a large and diverse country like India.
  • As the schemes are implemented by states, they should have substantial flexibility to ensure that the schemes benefit the targeted groups.

Editorial Simplified : Maintaining the India-China stride length | GS – II


Relevance :  GS Paper II


Theme of the article

Wuhan was meant to stabilise India-China ties at a time of major global changes; the basic understanding must continue.


Analysing India-China relations

  • The recent calm in India-China relations might have erased images of the turbulent chapter that preceded it.
  • For much of the period between 2014 and 2017, uncertainty regarding the other side’s policies and intentions leading to tension, mistrust, and competition characterised the relationship. It was an unusual spike in the post-Cold War era and only subsided in 2018.
  • Over the past decade, three historical forces have been shaping India-China relations. Some of these forces have been pushing both countries towards competition and some impelling them towards cooperation and collaboration.
    • The first is a changing world order and the rise of Asia, a phase that is generally traced to the period after the 2008 global economic crisis.
    • The second is the idea that with the West’s declining capacity and inclination to responsibly manage international and Asian affairs, India, China and other re-emerging powers are being thrust into new order building roles that would require coordination and cooperation.
    • The third is a changing South Asia with China’s 2013 and 2014 policy declarations of deepening ties with its periphery including with subcontinental states, followed soon after with the ambitious Belt and Road initiative and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor in April 2015.
  • While all three factors contributed to the complexity of India-China relations in the period leading up to 2017, the region became the main arena of interaction, with both sides adopting antagonistic approaches and strategies.
  • Much of this acrimonious build-up can be traced to China’s decision to expand linkages with its southwestern periphery and India’s perception and reaction to that process.
  • The Doklam episode in the high Himalayas was really the culmination of a deeper festering question — how would India and China relate to each other as their footprints grew in their overlapping peripheries? It was only with the outbreak of the border crisis and the possibility of a conflict that both leaderships undertook a sober assessment of the complex historical forces at play.
  • When situated against the broader picture of an emerging multipolarity and uncertainty on the future of globalisation, it led to a similar conclusion by the two leaderships: a lessening of regional tension was in the national interest of both countries. This, in essence, was the backdrop to the April 2018 “informal summit” in Wuhan, where both sides decided to arrest the deterioration in the relationship and attempt to chart a fresh course.

The Wuhan Summit

  • Wuhan 1.0 was an attempt to articulate some norms that could serve as a renewed set of guidelines to policymakers and bureaucracies in both countries. It was built on five pillars.
    • The “simultaneous emergence of India and China”, two major powers with independent foreign policies is a reality.
    • The relationship has regained importance and become “a positive factor for stability” in the global power flux.
    • Both sides recognise the “importance of respecting each other’s sensitivities, concerns and aspirations”.
    • Both leaderships would provide “strategic guidance to their respective militaries” to manage the border peacefully.
    • And finally, both sides would strive for “greater consultation on all matters of common interest”, which includes building a real “developmental partnership”.
  • Subsequently, the Wuhan approach was critiqued for not going far enough in terms of laying out a blueprint to resolve differences. There is some merit in that interpretation. Yet, the fact is both sides have contained much of the spiralling competition and mistrust, and, there is little doubt that an uncertain international environment motivated both sides towards such a choice.
  • It has also been claimed that China had tactical reasons for a truce with India in order to focus on strategic competition with the U.S. This is also true. But what has not been emphasised enough is India too benefits from not having to overburden its military, weak economy, and under-resourced diplomatic corps from having to focus on two fronts in a region-wide rivalry with China.

Road map

  • India’s China policy should be guided by three grand strategic goals:
  • an inclusive security architecture in Asia that facilitates a non-violent transition to multipolarity without disrupting economic interdependence;
  • a fair and rules-based open international order to better reflect Indian and developing economy interests; and,
  • geopolitical peace and sustainable economic development in the neighbourhood.
  • China is important to the successful pursuit of each of these goals, and the principal task before Indian policymakers is to envisage and execute a policy framework that allows for progress on these three ends.
  • The more the U.S. and China beat each other up, the more room for maneuver other powers will have. One could equally apply this mantra to India and China.

Conclusion

The recent stability in India-China relations is a choice made by both sides. History is obliging both countries to step up and play constructive roles to shape the emerging world order even as it is impelling both sides to learn to co-exist in a common neighbourhood.


Editorial Simplified : Stirring up the truth about ZBNF | GS – III


Relevance :  GS Paper III


Theme of the article

Zero Budget Natural Farming has no scientific validation and its inclusion into agricultural policy appears unwise.


Context

Most criticisms of modern agricultural practices are criticisms of post-Liebig developments in agricultural science. It was after the pioneering work of Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler in organic chemistry in the 19th century that chemical fertilizers began to be used in agriculture.


History of organic farming

  • In the 20th century, the criticisms levelled against Green Revolution technologies were criticisms of the increasing “chemicalisation” of agriculture. Claims were made that alternative, non-chemical agricultures were possible.
  • Organic farming became an umbrella term that represented a variety of non-chemical and less-chemical oriented methods of farming.
  • Rudolf Steiner’s biodynamics, Masanobu Fukuoka’s one-straw revolution and Madagascar’s System of Rice Intensification (SRI) were examples of specific alternatives proposed.
  • In India, such alternatives and their variants included, among others, homoeo-farming, Vedic farming, Natu-eco farming, Agnihotra farming and Amrutpani farming.
  • Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF), popularised by Subhash Palekar, is the most recent entry into this group.

Understanding the ZBNF

  • The alternative of ZBNF is, thus, posed against both inorganic farming and organic farming.
  • Palekar’s premise is that soil has all the nutrients plants need. To make these nutrients available to plants, we need the intermediation of microorganisms. For this, he recommends the “four wheels of ZBNF”: Bijamrit, Jivamrit, Mulching and Waaphasa.
    • Bijamrit is the microbial coating of seeds with formulations of cow urine and cow dung.
    • Jivamrit is the enhancement of soil microbes using an inoculum of cow dung, cow urine, and jaggery.
    • Mulching is the covering of soil with crops or crop residues.
    • Waaphasa is the building up of soil humus to increase soil aeration.
  • In addition, ZBNF includes three methods of insect and pest management: Agniastra, Brahmastra and Neemastra (all different preparations using cow urine, cow dung, tobacco, fruits, green chilli, garlic and neem).

Analysing ZBNF

  • First, ZBNF is hardly zero budget. Many ingredients have to be purchased. These apart, wages of hired labour, imputed value of family labour, imputed rent over owned land, costs of maintaining cows and paid-out costs on electricity and pump sets are all costs that ZBNF proponents conveniently ignore.
  • Second, there are no independent studies to validate the claims that ZBNF plots have a higher yield than non-ZBNF plots. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has a report, but it appears to be a self-appraisal by the implementing agency; independent studies based on field trials are not available..
  • Third, most of Mr. Palekar’s claims stand agricultural science on its head. Indian soils are poor in organic matter content. About 59% of soils are low in available nitrogen; about 49% are low in available phosphorus; and about 48% are low or medium in available potassium. Indian soils are also varyingly deficient in micronutrients, such as zinc, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum and boron.
  • Fourth, Mr. Palekar has a totally irrational position on the nutrient requirements of plants. According to him, 98.5% of the nutrients that plants need is obtained from air, water and sunlight; only 1.5% is from the soil. All nutrients are present in adequate quantities in all types of soils. However, they are not in a usable form. Jivamrit makes these nutrients available to the plants by increasing the population of soil microorganisms. All these are baseless claims.
  • Finally, the spiritual nature of agriculture that Mr. Palekar posits is troublesome. He has claimed that because of ZBNF’s spiritual closeness to nature, its practitioners will stop drinking, gambling, lying, eating non-vegetarian food and wasting resources. For him, only Indian Vedic philosophy is the “absolute truth”.
  • All of this reeks of a cultural chauvinism that uncritically celebrates indigenous knowledges and reactionary features of the past.

Way forward

  • Undoubtedly, improvement of soil health should be a priority agenda in India’s agricultural policy.
  • We need steps to check wind and water erosion of soils.
  • We need innovative technologies to minimise physical degradation of soils due to waterlogging, flooding and crusting.
  • We need to improve the fertility of saline, acidic, alkaline and toxic soils by reclaiming them.
  • We need location-specific interventions towards balanced fertilisation and integrated nutrient management.
  • While we try to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers in some locations, we should be open to increasing their use in other locations.
  • But such a comprehensive approach requires a strong embrace of scientific temper and a firm rejection of anti-science postures.

Conclusion

Lacking scientific temper, the inclusion of ZBNF into our agricultural policy by the government appears unwise and imprudent.


Gist of Editorials: Missing the Count | GS – III


Relevance :  GS Paper III


The tiger census report has showcased a significant achievement for India’s conservation efforts.

Change in population of tigers

  • Population has gone up by more than 700 since 2014.
  • India is home to nearly 3,000 tigers..

Questions over enumeration

  • An investigation shows that the survey over-reported the country’s tiger population by 16 per cent.
  • The tiger census did not follow well-established norms of estimation.
  • Earlier, the pug mark method was highly subjective and prone to duplication.
  • After 2006, a more rigorous three-phase method was adopted to count tigers including satellite surveys.
  • And, finally, camera-traps were set up in selected pockets to identify individual tigers.
  • The quality of the camera traps was a major issue in many tiger habitats.

Conclusion

Institutions responsible for enumeration must be guided by ecological imperative.


Gist of Editorials: Leaning on the states | GS – II


Relevance :  GS Paper II


Context

Suggestions have been made to have a relook at design of centrally sponsored schemes (CSS).

State should contribute to CSS

  • If the Union government is required to contribute to CSS in the State List, why should states not contribute to items in the Union List like defence.
  • A relook is needed at the Seventh Schedule.

The seventh schedule: not caste in stone

  • Few amendments have already taken place in the Seventh Schedule.
  • The 42nd amendment  transferred five subjects from the State List to the Concurrent List.

The rationale behind Central Sector Schemes (CSS)

  • States have comparative advantage in providing certain services according to the varied preferences of the people.
  • Efficient provision of certain public services requires subsidisation.
  • Schemes by Centre on subjects in the State List provides electoral benefits to former.

Some issues with CSS

  • These schemes have expiry dates, but they are never folded up and always get repackaged.
  • Each of the schemes has multiple objectives and service delivery standards are not clearly defined.
  • Consultations with states in designing the schemes is hardly done.

Can states pay for expenditure on items in the Union List?

  • Article 282 has this provision.
  • However, defence is a national public good and hence it becomes the primary responsibility of the Centre.
  • The states simply do not have the resources to spend beyond the subjects in their domain.

Way forward

  • There should be consultations in formulating, designing and closing CSS down.
  • States should have substantial flexibility to ensure that the schemes benefit the targeted groups.

CSE-2020 | Prelims Daily Quiz 84 [Answers]

Quiz 84 – Answers


Questions can be found here :

Link : https://chromeias.com/cse-2020-prelims-daily-quiz-84-questions/


Q.1

a) 1 and 2 only

EXPLANATION –

The first ever ‘India International Cooperatives Trade Fair’ (IICTF) was inaugurated by the Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers’ at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.

‘India International Cooperatives Trade Fair’ (IICTF) is unique initiative that provides single platform to farmers, artisans & other members of cooperatives directly to global trade arena.

This IICTF initiative is part of Agriculture Export Policy (AEP) 2018.

The Fair is jointly organised by National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) in association with the Bangkok based international organization Network for the Development of Agricultural Cooperatives (NEDAC) along with 3 Central Ministries, 4 State Governments and several apex level Indian cooperative organizations.


Q.2

b) Both A and R are correct, and R is not correct explanation of A

EXPLANATION –

Mamallapuram is an important town of the erstwhile Pallava dynasty that ruled in parts of South India from 275 CE to 897 CE.

Mamallapuram and the Pallava dynasty are also historically associated with China. The earliest recorded security pacts between China and India in the early 8th century are present.Chinese sought help from a Pallava king Rajasimhan or Narasimha Varma II to counter Tibet.

Mamallapuram is renowned for its architecture, widely admired across the world.


Q.3

c) Both 1 and 2

EXPLANATION –

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October, 1993.

The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.

It is in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991.


Q.4

c ) It is the highest civilian honour of the Union of Comoros.

EXPLANATION –

The Comorian President conferred the ‘Order of the Green Crescent’ on the Vice President of India.

‘Order of the Green Crescent’ is the highest civilian honour of the Union of Comoros.


Q.5

d) All of the above

EXPLANATION –

The Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism is a proposed treaty which intends to criminalize all forms of international terrorism and deny terrorists, their financiers and supporters access to funds, arms, and safe havens.

It is a draft proposed by India in 1996 that is yet to be adopted by the UNGA.

CCIT provides Universal definition of terrorism: no good terrorist or bad terrorist and Ban on all groups regardless of country of operation, cut off access to funds and safe havens.

It also addresses, among other things, the issue of Pakistan’s alleged support for cross-border terrorism in south Asia.


PIB – October 14 , 2019


GS- 3rd Paper

Topic- Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

Context

Abhijit Banerjee has been awarded the 2019 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

All about noble Prizes

  • The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
  • The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer, industrialist and the inventor of dynamite Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895.
  • He gave the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology/Medicine, Literature, and Peace, to be called the “Nobel Prizes”.
  • In 1968, the sixth award, the Prize in Economic Sciences was started.
  • The Nobel Prize consists of a Nobel Medal and Diploma, and a document confirming the prize amount.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences 2019

  • Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer, are the winners of 2019 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences.
  • The prestigious Nobel Prize in Economics was given to the Trio for their Experimental Approach to Alleviating Global Poverty.
  • The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel .
  • It is an award funded by Sveriges Riksbank and is annually awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences.
  • The Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was not part of original group of awards (Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine) set out in dynamite tycoon Alfred Nobel’s 1895 will.
  • In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) established the Prize in Economic Sciences.
  • The Prize is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the Bank’s 300th anniversary.

Selection of winners

  • The Nobel Committees of four prize-awarding institutions every year invite thousands of members of academies, university professors, scientists, previous Nobel Laureates, and members of parliamentary assemblies among others to submit candidates for the Nobel Prizes for the coming year.
  • One cannot nominate himself/herself for a Nobel Prize.
  • The nominators are selected in such a way that as many countries and universities as possible are represented over time.
  • The Nobel Committees of the prize-awarding institutions are responsible for the selection of the candidates, the institutions being-
  1. Nobel Prize in Physics and Chemistry– The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  2. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – The Karolinska Institutet
  3. Nobel Prize in Literature – The Swedish Academy
  4. Nobel Peace Prize – A five-member Committee elected by the Norwegian Parliament
  5. Prize in Economic Sciences – The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

GS- 3rd Paper

Topic- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights

L2Pro India

Context

Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) launched the website and mobile application (Learn to Protect, Secure and Maximize Your Innovation) on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs).

About

  • DPIIT launched the website and mobile application on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs).
  • The website and app has been developed by Cell for IPR Promotion and Management (CIPAM)-DPIIT in collaboration with Qualcomm and National Law University (NLU),

Benefits

  • The modules of this e-learning platform (L2Pro India IP e-learning Platform and the L2Pro India Mobile App) will aid and enable youth, innovators, entrepreneurs and small and medium industries (SMEs).
  • It will help in understanding IPRs for their ownership and protection, integrate IP into business models and obtain value for their R&D efforts.
  • The L2Pro has been successfully implemented in Germany, United Kingdom, Italy and France, benefiting immensely from close collaboration with respective IP organizations and public research institutions.
  • The learning app has been customized for India in order to ensure that innovation which is fundamental to startups are protected, managed and commercialised.

Key Features of L2Pro India IP e-learning platform

  • The L2Pro India IP e-learning platform will have 11 modules for three different levels: Basic, Intermediate and Advanced.
  • Each module comprises of e-text for understanding concepts, short animated videos of the concepts, links to additional resources on the subject and quizzes for assessment and grading the learner’s knowledge and understanding of the subject.
  • Learners will access the L2Pro IP e-learning platform through their desktop, laptop, mobile browser and mobile application. Learners will be provided e-certificates by CIPAM-DPIIT and NLU Delhi and Qualcomm on successful completion of the e-learning modules.

What are Intellectual Property Rights?

  • Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds.
  • They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.
  • Intellectual property rights are customarily divided into two main areas
  1. Copyright and rights related to copyright.
  • The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings, sculpture, computer programs and films) are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author.
  • Also protected through copyright and related “neighbouring” rights are the rights of performers (e.g. actors, singers and musicians), producers of phonograms (sound recordings) and broadcasting organizations.
  • The main social purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work.
  1. Industrial property
  • Industrial property can usefully be divided into two main areas-
  • One area can be characterized as the protection of distinctive signs, in particular trademarks and geographical indications.
  • The protection of such distinctive signs aims to stimulate and ensure fair competition and to protect consumers, by enabling them to make informed choices between various goods and services.
  • The protection may last indefinitely, provided the sign in question continues to be distinctive.
  • Second type of industrial property is protected primarily to stimulate innovation, design and the creation of technology.
  • In this category fall inventions (protected by patents), industrial designs and trade secrets.

Need

  • The social purpose is to provide protection for the results of investment in the development of new technology, thus giving the incentive and means to finance research and development activities.
  • A functioning intellectual property regime should also facilitate the transfer of technology in the form of foreign direct investment, joint ventures and licensing.
  • The protection is usually given for a finite term (typically 20 years in the case of patents).

For Prelims-

World Standard Day

Context

Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution inaugurated the celebrations of ‘World Standard Day’ by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

Highlights

  • The celebration of 60th ‘World Standard Day’ was organized by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
  • The theme of the World Standard Day 2019 was “Video Standards create a global stage”
  • World Standards Day is an international day celebrated internationally each year on 14 October.
  • The day honours the efforts of the thousands of experts who develop voluntary standards within standards development organizations.
  • The aim of World Standards Day is to raise awareness among regulators, industry and consumers as to the importance of standardization to the global economy.
  • 14 October was specifically chosen to mark the date, in 1946, when delegates from 25 countries first gathered in London and decided to create an international organization focused on facilitating standardization.

Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav

Context

To Celebrate India’s plural traditions and culture, Under Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Matrix, 10th edition of Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav was inaugurated.

Highlights

  • 10th edition of ‘Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav’ under the Ministry of Culture to be inaugurated in Jabalpur.
  • the Ministry of Culture decided to organize it with an intent to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the Country in all its rich and varied dimensions, viz Handicrafts, Cuisine, Painting, Sculpture and Performing Arts-Folk, Tribal, Classical and Contemporary- all in one place.
  • The Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat programme was launched by the Prime Minister on 31st October, 2016.
  • It was aimed to promote engagement amongst the people of different States/UTs so as to enhance mutual understanding and bonding between people of diverse cultures, thereby securing stronger unity and integrity of India.

LOTUS-HR (Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuseplant)

Context

India and Netherlands launched the second phase of the LOTUS-HR (Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuseplant ) as a part of joint collaboration.

Highlights

  • His Majesty King Willem-Alexander and Her Majesty, Queen Maxima of the Kingdom of the Netherlands a joint launch of the second phase of the Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUS-HR) program.
  • The project was initiated in July 2017.
  • It aims to demonstrate a novel holistic (waste) water management approaches that will produce clean water which can be reused for various purposes.
  • The LOTUS-HR project is jointly supported by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India and Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research /STW, Government of Netherlands.

CSE-2020 | Prelims Daily Quiz 84 [ Questions ]


Questions


Q1. Consider the following statements about “India International Cooperatives Trade Fair (IICTF)”

1 .India International Cooperatives Trade Fair’ (IICTF) is very first of its kind organised in New Delhi.

2. This IICTF initiative is part of Agriculture Export Policy (AEP) 2018.

3. The fair is organized by only Central government.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above


Q2. Consider the following statements 

Assertion (A):  Mamallapuram and the Pallava dynasty are historically associated with China.

Reason (R): •  Mamallapuram is renowned for its architecture, widely admired across the world.

Select the correct answer from codes given below

a) Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

b) Both A and R are correct, and R is not correct explanation of A

c) A is correct while R is incorrect

d) A is incorrect while R is correct


Q3. Consider the following statements National Human Right Commission (NHRC):

1. NHRC was established under the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 and amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.

2. It is in conformity with the Paris Principles, for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2


Q4. What is ‘The order of the Green Crescent’?

a) ‘Order of the Green Crescent’ is the highest civilian honour of the UAE.

b) It is the highest military award of the Union of Bahrain.

c) It is the highest civilian honour of the Union of Comoros.


Q5. Consider the following statements about ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT):

1.The Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism is a proposed treaty which intends to criminalize all forms of international terrorism.

2.It is a draft proposed by India in 1996 that is yet to be adopted by the UNGA.

3.CCIT provides Universal definition of terrorism: no good terrorist or bad terrorist.

4.Ban on all groups regardless of country of operation, cut off access to funds and safe havens proposed in CCIT.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1, 2 and 4 only

b) 2, 3 and 4 only

c) 1, 3 and 4 only

d) All of the above


Note 

1. Answers will be given tomorrow with Solution

2. You can post your answers in discussion section below and cross check your accuracy .

Objective of this exercise is to prepare you for PRELIMS 2020 on daily basis . If you do it sincerely and attempt a good Test Series under exam like conditions , we are sure it will help you in clearing Prelims examination.


Quiz 83

Questions –  https://chromeias.com/cse-2020-prelims-daily-quiz-83-questions/

Answers – https://chromeias.com/cse-2020-prelims-daily-quiz-83-answers/