[GS Prelims] Prelims Hacks – [2]

Consider this question asked in UPSC Prelims 2018:

With reference to Indian history, who among the following is a future Buddha, yet to come to save the world?

(a) Avalokiteshvara

(b) Lokesvara

(c) Maitreya

(d) Padmapani

About this question:

  • This question belongs to the ‘art & culture’ section.
  • Most of the candidates/aspirants did not know about some or all of the terms given in the options.
  • The tendency is to leave such questions – as aspirants look for absolute and one-to one mapping to mark such questions. here most important is to trust ones preparation if one has read basic and standard sources well.

HACKS to attempt this question with minimum risk:

  • It’s true that most of the candidates did not know about all the four terms given in the options.
  • However, if one properly goes through the ‘Fine Arts’ book on “ Art & Heritage’ NCERT Class 11th, one can find three of the four terms given which are – Avalokiteshvara, Lokesvara, and Padmapani.
  • If this NCERT is properly read, one can easily find that none of the three terms have any relation to ‘future Buddha’ i.e. reincarnation of Buddha. As NCERT would have mentioned such important fact.
  • So, we are left with only one unknown term i.e. Maitreya, which is the correct answer.
  • Hence one must have confidence that what all one has read – never had any such reference – so probably the term which was not seen before could be the answer.
  • But above conclusion can be reached – only when one has read NCERT closely.

Added standalone facts:

Successor : Maitreya

  • Maitreya , is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.

Predecessor : Kassapa Buddha

  • Kassapa Buddha, is one of the ancient Buddhas whose biography is of the Buddhavamsa, one of the books of the Pāli Canon.
  • According to Theravāda Buddhist tradition, Kassapa is the twenty-seventh of the twenty-nine named Buddhas and the third of the five Buddhas of the present kalpa.

The present kalpa is called a mahabhadrakalpa . The five Buddhas of the present kalpa are:
1.Kakusandha (1st Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
2.Konagamana (2nd Buddha -do-)
3.Kassapa  (3rd Buddha -do-)
4.Gautama (4th and present Buddha -do-)
5.Maitreya  (5th and future Buddha -do-)

  • In Buddhism – Buddhahood is the conditioned of being awakened.
  • In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it.



Essential Facts (Prelims): 6 March, 2019

Generalized System of Preferences

Category: International

  • S. has announced that he intends to end preferential trade terms for India under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) programme.
  • The GSP programme sets zero tariffs for certain goods from a set of 121 developing countries to foster their trade and economic development.
  • GSP accounts for some $5.6 billion of India’s exports to the U.S.making India the largest GSP beneficiary.
  • Chemicals, gems and jewellery, engineering and textiles are among the Indian industrial sectors that benefit from the GSP.

Polluted cities

Category: Environment

  • Fifteen of the top 20 most polluted cities in the world are located in India.
  • Gurugram in Haryana topped the list.
  • Delhi — a frequent fixture on global pollution hotspots — was at the 11th place.
  • When ranked by country, Bangladesh emerged as the most polluted followed by Pakistan and India respectively.
  • Of the cities analysed, 64% exceeded the WHO’s annual exposure guideline (10 micrograms/cubic metre) for fine particulate matter, also known as PM2.5.
  • India’s annual guidelines range from 40-60 micrograms/cubic metre, depending on whether they are residential or industrial areas.
  • Every single one of measured cities with data in the Middle East and Africa exceeded the WHO guideline.


Category: Defence & Security

  • A digital ‘barrier’ has finally filled a 61 km gap on the 4,096.7 km India-Bangladesh border fence.
  • Assam shares a 263 km border with Bangladesh.
  • Much of the border was fenced, but a 61 km stretch in Dhubri district remained open owing to the terrain dictated by the Brahmaputra.
  • The central govt inaugurated an electronic surveillance system that is expected to diminish challenges faced by the Border Security Force in manning this stretch against cross-border crimes.
  • Comprising microwave communication, optical fibre cables, cameras, and an intrusion detection device, this system is called BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) and was established under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System.


Category: Social sector

  • Prime Minister launched the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan (PM-SYM) Yojana.
  • It provides for a monthly pension of ₹3,000 to employees in the unorganised sector after 60 years of age.


Category: Economy

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has slapped penalties on seven more commercial banks for not adhering to regulatory directions relating to global messaging platform SWIFT.
  • Over the last few days, RBI has fined 11 banks-both public and private- for delayed implementation of SWIFT-related operational controls.
  • SWIFT is the global messaging software used for transactions by the financial entities.

Nari Shakti Puraskar , 2018

Category: Miscellaneous

  • Nari Shakti Puraskar is the highest civilian honour for women in India.
  • To acknowledge women’s achievements, the Ministry of Women and Child Development confers Nari Shakti Puraskaron women and institutions in recognition of their relentless service towards  the cause of women empowerment and social welfare.
  • This year, 44 awardees have been selected for these Puraskar.
  • This year, the Nari Shakti Puraskar has also been awarded to a One Stop Centre (OSC) and to a state which has shown exceptional progress in improving child sex ratio at birth under the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme.


Career Initiative

Dear Aspirants,

Chrome IAS and Sphinx Worldbiz have come to an understanding to facilitate easier transition of civil services aspirants who have exhausted their attempts or are looking to move into corporate sector.

Sphinx Worldbiz is offering job opportunity for civil services aspirants in the role of engagement manager for sales profile.

We are looking for candidates who have mechanical engineering background and possess good communication skills. Candidates should have attempted civil services examination at least twice. Students with background in psychology or optional as psychology could also mail their CV’s.  Salary will be as per industry standards.

The whole objective of this process is to help aspirants overcome the uncertainties and anxieties that students face after exhausting their attempts and somehow are not able to clear civil services examination.

Shortlisted students will be called for personal interview on 16th March, 2018.

About Sphinx Worldbiz

Sphinx Worldbiz is a precision engineering company. We bring best of breed solutions for high end clients in the automotive field in international markets and offer engineering service competencies and IT solutions. Our 320 employees endeavor to generate repeat business from clients who are suppliers of BMW, Audi, GM in Germany and USA. Our range of services now include IT infrastructure and consulting as well as CAD, CAM and CAE services.

www.sphinxworldbiz.com / www.sphinxworldbiz.net

Interested students can send their resumes to nitish.k@sphinxworldbiz.com.

Note: Chrome IAS is just acting as a party which is merely a facilitator as we firmly believe that aspirants who have prepared for Civil Services Examination sincerely but have not been fortunate enough to make it to the final list – are inherently having an edge to compete and to establish themselves as successful leaders in time to come.

Thus Chrome IAS is exploring and would explore in future such opportunities which can help aspirants to excel in life.