Essential Facts (Prelims): 3 December, 2018


  • UNAIDS has envisioned to achieve ‘90-90-90’ target by 2020, which will result in controlling HIV infection to sustainable state by 2030.
  • As per the ‘90-90-90’ target,
  • 90% of all HIV infected persons should get diagnosed and know their HIV positive status.
  • 90% of these diagnosed HIV positive persons are to be provided regular Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).
  • 90 % of persons taking ART should show signs of viral suppression which reduces their scope of infection.

Hampi Utsav

  • Hampi Festival or Vijaya Utsav is one of the most marvellous festivals in Karnataka.
  • The festival is all about dance, music, drama, puppet shows, vibrant processions and fireworks.
  • The Hampi Festival is a three day festival which is generally celebrated from 3rd to 5th November

Hornbill Festival

  • It is a festival of Nagaland.
  • It is also called the ‘Festival of Festivals’.
  • It revolves around agriculture.
  • The first festival was held in 2000.
  • The festival is named after the Indian hornbill, the large and colourful forest bird which is displayed in the folklore of most of the state’s tribes.
  • The Nagas consider their festivals sacred, so participation in these festivals is essential.
    Sahariya tribals
  • It is a tribal community of Rajasthan.
  • It has been classified as a particularly vulnerable tribal group because of low development indices.
  • It has a population of about 70000.

No local currency trade with India

  • China has not accepted India’s proposal to carry out bilateral trade in local currencies.
  • The proposal was aimed at bridging the ballooning trade deficit.
  • India’s exports to China stood at only $13.4 billion and imports aggregated to $76.4 billion in 2017-18, leaving a trade deficit of $63 billion. It was $51.11 billion in 2016-17.
  • India has also proposed trade in national currencies with other countries, including Russia, Iran and Venezuela with which New Delhi has a trade deficit.

Roshni Act

  • Jammu and Kashmir State Lands (Vesting of Ownership to the Occupants) Act, 2001, is popularly known as the Roshni Act.
  • The Roshni Act envisaged the transfer of ownership rights of state land to its occupants, subject to the payment of a cost, as determined by the government.
  • The government’s target was to earn Rs 25,000 crore by transferring 20 lakh kanals of state land to existing occupants against payment at market rates.
  • The government said the revenue generated would be spent on commissioning hydroelectric power projects, hence the name “Roshni”..


Essential Facts (Prelims): 2 December, 2018


  • The Maternity Benefit Amendment Act, 2017, enhancing paid maternity leave from a period of 12 weeks to 26 weeks.
  • The law is applicable to all institutions with 10 or more employees.
  • It also makes it mandatory for every organisation with 50 or more employees to have a crèche.
  • New guidelines by the govt. recommend that a crèche be either at the workplace or within 500 metres of it. Alternatively, it could also be in the beneficiaries’ neighbourhood.
  • The facility should be open for eight to 10 hours.
  • A crèche must have a minimum space of 10 to 12 square feet per child to ensure that she or he can play, rest and learn.
  • There should also be a grievance redressal committee for inquiring into instances of sexual abuse. The guidelines are not mandatory but are a yardstick for NGOs and organisations for setting up of creches.


  • There are 13 tiger-range countries.
  • Signatories to the Global Tiger Recovery Program have set up a goal to double tiger numbers from about 3,200 to about 6,000 by 2022.


  • Rotavirus infection is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children under five years worldwide.
  • Babies in 10 Indian states are immunised against rotavirus.


  • The H1-B visa has an annual numerical limit cap of 65,000 visas each fiscal year.
  • The H1B visa, popular among Indian IT companies and professionals, is a non-immigrant visa that allows US companies to employ foreign workers in speciality occupations that require theoretical or technical expertise.


  • Companies launching new cosmetics will be required to submit safety data to the regulator for seeking approval.
  • Cosmetics will also have to comply with packaging standards prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and cannot use animals for testing.
  • At present, cosmetics are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act but there were no separate regulations for cosmetics.


  • The missile can be launched from land, sea, sub-sea, and air against surface and sea-based targets.
  • Initially, the range was capped ta 290 km to meet obligations of MTCR.
  • After India Joined MTCR in 2006, the range was extended to 450 km.

Living Planet Index

  • The Living Planet Index (LPI) is a measure of the state of the world’s biological diversity based on population trends of vertebrate species from terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. The LPI has been adopted by the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) as an indicator of progress towards its 2011-2020 target to ‘take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity’.
  • The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) manages the index in cooperation with the World Wildlife Fund.
  • It recognizes five types of threats.
  • Habitat loss is the most commonly recorded threat, followed by overexploitation.


  • It is a telescope located in Chile.


Essential Facts (Prelims): 1 December, 2018

Paris Agreement

  • This agreement agreed to in 2015 exhorts countries to take steps to avoid temperatures from rising beyond 2C of pre-industrial levels, and even 1.5 C as far as possible, by the end of the century.
  • The United States opted out of the deal last year but continues to be part of discussions as a complete withdrawal — as per terms of the UN convention — takes up to four years.

Forex reserves

  • India’s foreign exchange reserves declined by $ 24 billion to $ 400 billion this year.
  • The fall has been mainly due to capital outflows and the RBI move to stabilise the weakening rupee through dollar sales.
  • RBI held 586 tonne of gold of which 294 tonne are held overseas in safe custody with the Bank of England and the Bank for International Settlements, while the remaining gold is held domestically.
  • The share of gold in the total foreign exchange reserves is around 5 per cent.


  • The CPSE ETF comprise of shares of the 11 state-run companies including ONGC, Coal India, IOC, Oil India, Bharat Electronics, NTPSC, etc.
  • CPSE ETF was set up in 2014 and the government has so far sold stake in the basket through three tranches, thereby raising Rs 11,500 crore.
  • The government has mopped up over Rs 15,000 crore so far this fiscal through PSU disinvestment.
  • The budgeted target from PSU disinvestment is Rs 80,000 crore for the current fiscal.

Fiscal deficit

  • For the year 2018-19, fiscal deficit target is Rs 6.2 lakh crore or 3.3% of GDP

Blue Cross

  • India’s only individual Olympic gold medallist, Abhinav Bindra, was awarded the coveted Blue Cross — shooting’s highest honour — by the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF).


CSE-2019 | Prelims Daily Quiz 53


With reference to Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) which was recently in news, consider the following statements:

1. It is a body formed by executive resolution.

2. It functions under Ministry of Finance.

3. It cannot make arrests.


Select the correct statement/s using the code given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) None of the above

d) None of the above

  • SFIO is a statutory body.
  • It functions under the Corporate Affairs Ministry.
  • The power to make arrests was granted to SFIO in August last year.